PSYC 221 Exam 1

Liberty PSYC 221 Exam 1 Answers

Set 1

  1. Which of the following statements describes a fundamental point of childhood development?
  2. Most immigrant children in the United States
  3. In western societies, the dominant traditional family structure is the __________ family, while in other societies such as Asian and Latin America, the __________ family is more traditional.
  4. During which developmental period do children develop speech and locomotion, and become somewhat more assertive and self‐reliant, yet need considerable help in restraining their impulsive behavior?
  5. A __________ is a specific time during development when a given event, or lack of an event, has the greatest impact.
  6. Adolescence is an example of a
  7. __________ first emphasized the developmental nature of behavior by publishing a record of his son’s sensory, motor, language, and emotional milestones during his first years of life.
  8. Children become proficient in regulating their own behavior and are very interested in their peer group during
  9. Annette started crawling, then standing, and is now taking her first steps. This aspect of Annette’s development falls within the _______ domain.
  10. Charles is a child growing up in a low‐SES (socioeconomic status) family. Which of the following will likely have an effect on his development?
  11. According to Freud, the element of personality that operates under the pleasure principal is referred to as the
  12. The scientific method, as applied in any field of study, is based on which of the following elements?
  13. Which of the following is NOT one of the ethical guidelines that a researcher must follow when conducting research with human subjects?
  14. _____ extended ethological principles to the study of human development, focusing attention on the mother‐infant bond.
  15. Dolores works in a pediatrics ward and has decided to investigate whether or not the level of nurse friendliness influences children’s perceptions of their hospital experiences. For her research, which of the following would be the best operational definition of nurse friendliness?
  16. Dobber, a teacher, believes that fourth graders are at a stage of psychosexual development characterized by relative calm. Mrs. Dobber’s students are in the _________ stage, which occurs during middle childhood.
  17. Which of the following is a shortcoming of laboratory experiments?
  18. A youth sports league is involved in a study in which one group of coaches is given instruction covering developmental considerations of teaching children and another group receives no such training. The coaches are assigned to different groups of children for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks, each group of children is interviewed to assess their level of satisfaction with their sport experience. In this study, the type of training the coaches received is considered the ______ variable.
  19. Sociocultural theory, developed by __________, stresses a child’s active involvement with his or her environment.
  20. F. Skinner and other behaviorists maintain that human behavior is determined by
  21. Dan and Fiona have decided to utilize technology to overcome their infertility problems. They opt for a procedure in which a mature ovum is surgically removed, fertilized in a laboratory dish, and then implanted in the woman’s uterus. This technique is called
  22. ______ suggested that the production of male babies was the natural order of things and that a female came about only if development was disturbed.
  23. Sophia was adopted when she was 1. If she is given an intelligence test at age 16, her intelligence level is likely to be more similar to that of her
  24. In college, Cathy tried a number of different majors until she found one that was right for her. She was originally interested in a career in research and was very successful academically. She later decided that she missed social interaction, so she decided to try teaching high school biology. The first time that she stood in front of the classroom, she knew that this was where she belonged. Which of the following terms best explains Cathy’s development?
  25. Krystal was ill as a baby, and before she was a year old, she was diagnosed with _____, a genetic defect that causes thick mucus to clog the breathing passages and the digestive system.
  26. Which birth defect afflicts African Americans more than it does other ethnic groups?
  27. Fred and Wilma have discovered that their infertility is due to Fred’s extremely low sperm count. In an attempt to get pregnant, Wilma has a doctor inject a collection of her husband’s sperm directly into her cervix. This procedure is called
  28. The environment often reflects or reinforces genetic differences. In other words, certain genetic and environmental influences tend to reinforce each other. This tendency is called
  29. The chemical that carries inherited instructions for the development of all cellular forms of life is called
  30. Which child is likely to exhibit the smallest reaction range for the trait of intelligence?
  31. A fertilized ovum is also called a(n)
  32. Doctors have found that increasing a woman’s folic acid consumption by just 5 milligrams each day reduces the incidence of __________ by 85 percent.
  33. Which of the following statements about prenatal nourishment is FALSE?
  34. If a mother wants to have a clear image of the fetus in her womb, which procedure would you recommend?
  35. Carl and Eleanor have been going for a morning run for the past three years. They are concerned about whether or not they can continue now that Eleanor is pregnant. Which of the following statements best describes the appropriate level of exercise for pregnant women?
  36. Rubella has the potential of damaging an unborn child during which period of pregnancy?
  37. A pregnant woman feels the movement known as quickening at about the _____ month.
  38. Which prenatal stage of development lasts the longest?
  39. Studies suggest that the likelihood of genetic defects caused by abnormal sperm increases when the father is _____ before conception.
  40. “Mourning a Miscarriage or Stillbirth” suggests which of the following?

Set 2

  1. Katherine grew up attending private Catholic schools. Each year at Christmas, she and her classmates decorated a tree in school and did the same at home. For Katherine’s classmates and family, the tree decorating was a _________ event.
  2. Rubella has a disastrous impact if it is contracted during the first trimester of a pregnancy, yet has hardly any impact if contracted later in a pregnancy. This is an example of
  3. The most powerful factors in a neighborhood that affect the way children develop are income and
  4. Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the major divisions of the life span?
  5. conducted longitudinal studies that traced the stages of motor development, which contributed to our understanding of developments that typically occur at various ages.
  6. Carrie (age 22) and Chelsea (age 17) are sisters. Carrie is a focused student who thrives in academic settings. She is working on a graduate degree at a very selective university. Chelsea is much less concerned about school and more interested in socializing. She is considering bypassing college because she wants to go to work as soon as she graduates from high school. Their parents cannot figure out what they did to make their daughters turn out so differently. Which of the following concepts would you emphasize when trying to explain the sisters’ differences to their parents?
  7. A two-generational kinship unit that shares household and economic resources and consists of one or two parents and their biological, adopted, or stepchildren is called a(n)
  8. Which of the following is/are determined by socioeconomic status?
  9. Evidence for critical periods of physical development is undeniable. However, for other aspects of development, there seems to be greater
  10. Events that occur at about the same age for people around the world, such as starting school, are called
  11. Before designing her research study, Dr. Bennett predicts that infants who have poor diets will have academic problems later in life. Dr. Bennett’s prediction is an example of a(n)
  12. Children have a tendency to imitate the adults they admire even if some of the observed behavior is not appropriate. This process is known as
  13. Marcus is interested in the effects of television aggression on children’s behavior. Marcus brings participants to a play room and shows them a short cartoon depicting the main characters hitting, yelling, and destroying toys. He then allows the children to play for 15 minutes, observing their behavior from behind a one-way mirror, noting instances of aggression. Marcus is using the _______ observation method.
  14. Which of the following are the two key points of Piaget’s cognitive perspective?
  15. What type of research design should a researcher use if she wishes to determine if a statistical relationship exists between variables?
  16. Tom volunteers to teach children how to play basketball. He finds that when he first tries to teach a skill, such as shooting the ball, he sometimes has to physically guide the children’s feet in the correct position. Generally, the more he works with the children and the more knowledge they acquire, the less support he has to provide. This is an example of
  17. In Erikson’s theory of development, there are ___ stages of psychosocial development.
  18. A youth sports league is involved in a study in which one group of coaches is given instruction covering developmental considerations of teaching children and another group receives no such training. The coaches are assigned to different groups of children for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks, each group of children is interviewed to assess their level of satisfaction with their sport experience. In this study, the type of training the coaches received is considered the ______ variable.
  19. The information-processing approach to explaining cognitive development compares the brain to a
  20. Anabelle knows that after she is fed her bottle, she is patted on the back and put down to sleep. This organized pattern of behavior is called
  21. Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome are caused by abnormalities of the
  22. Petra would like to replicate herself. However, she needs to realize that, although cloning can produce identical _____, it cannot produce identical
  23. The _____ is the basic unit that determines inherited characteristics.
  24. If Carol and Robert both pass on the gene for red hair, their child will have red hair. This is an example of _____ inheritance.
  25. Dan and Fiona have decided to utilize technology to overcome their infertility problems. They opt for a procedure in which a mature ovum is surgically removed, fertilized in a laboratory dish, and then implanted in the woman’s uterus. This technique is called
  26. Which of the following statements regarding Down syndrome is FALSE?
  27. Which of the following factors can have vast consequences on a child’s development?
  28. Which of the following are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)?
  29. Brooklyn has curly hair but carries a gene for straight hair. Her phenotype is
  30. A strongly canalized trait is one that
  31. Which of the following statements is true of prenatal care?
  32. Drugs known to be potentially harmful when taken during pregnancy include
  33. Miscarriages are most commonly caused by
  34. Pregnant women over age 40 and pregnant adolescents are at increased risk for having
  35. Mothers who drink alcohol should be made aware that fetal alcohol syndrome
  36. Jane is 8 weeks pregnant and has just contracted rubella. If you were Jane’s obstetrician, what information would you give her regarding the health of her unborn baby?
  37. The fluid-filled sac surrounding the developing human organism is called the
  38. In the United States, which of the following pregnant women is likely to get the least amount of prenatal care?
  39. Of the following, which is LEAST likely to be a cause of spontaneous abortion?
  40. A fertilized ovum is also called a(n)
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