PHSC 210 Midterm

PHSC 210 Midterm

  1. Which of the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atom’s nucleus?
  2. This type of chemical bond results from the sharing of electrons.
  3. _____________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.
  4. Igneous rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a _____________ texture.
  5. What is the hardest known substance in nature?
  6. Drumlins are ____________.
  7. A _______ cross‐valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
  8. Which group of minerals is the most abundant in the earth’s crust?
  9. A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean. What is the average gradient?
  10. In the early part of the 20th century, ____________ argued forcefully for continental drift.
  11. According to most secular geologists, about 88 percent of geologic time is represented by the span called the _______________.
  12. What inert gas is introduced into the atmosphere at the phenomenal rate of 13 million atoms per square inch per second, thereby making it impossible to believe that it has been accumulating in the earth’s atmosphere for 4.5 billion years?
  13. An unconformity above and below which the sedimentary layers are essentially parallel is a(n) _______________.
  14. The ion at the center of a silicon‐oxygen tetrahedron is surrounded by ____________.
  15. A _______________ is the icicle‐like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.
  16. All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
  17. All of the following provide evidence of a young earth EXCEPT:
  18. Which of the following is NOT one of the eight most common elements in earth’s crust?
  19. Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of earth’s land area?
  20. A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a ________________.
  21. ___________ is one of the two, major flow mechanisms in a glacier.
  22. Which of the following best characterizes an angular unconformity?
  23. Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at ______________.
  24. Permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called _____________.
  25. _____________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.
  26. Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called _________.
  27. Which of he following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil?
  28. Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks?
  29. Which of the following best defines a mineral or a rock?
  30. Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering?
  31. Metamorphism may result from ______________.
  32. The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as __________.
  33. As the rate of cooling increases in igneous rocks, the size of the crystals that form ___________.
  34. Intrusive igneous rocks ______________.
  35. An artesian well is one in which ______________.
  36. New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ________________.
  37. Which of the following is associated with areas of karst topography?
  38. A transform plate boundary is characterized by ______________________.
  39. The assumptions made in radioisotope dating include:
  40. Which of the following is NOT related to chemical weathering?
  41. Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building.
  42. The rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year.
  43. The source of heat for most hot springs is hot igneous material beneath the surface.
  44. All minerals exhibit cleavage.
  45. Rapid burial and possession of hard parts are necessary conditions for the preservation of plant or animal remains as fossils.
  46. In general, rocks of the continental crust are less dense than rocks of the oceanic crust.
  47. Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow.
  48. An unconformity involving older metamorphic rocks and younger sedimentary strata is termed a nonconformity.
  49. The lowest base level for most streams is sea level.
  50. Running water is an important erosional agent in many arid lands despite infrequent rainfalls.


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