People engage in self-handicapping strategies in order to avoid
Molly is eighteen years old, and has an eight-year-old brother, Joe. If they are both asked to answer the question, “Who am I?” Molly is likely to answer the question in ________ terms than Joe.
Assume that when exposed to a mirror, chimpanzees will use the mirror to aid in grooming (e.g., to pick food from their teeth) and to entertain themselves by making faces. The chimps’ behavior in front of the mirror would suggest that
Which of the following people is engaging in upward social comparison?
While completing a personality test, Craig comes to an item that asks him if he sees himself as shy and introverted. Craig reflects on some of his recent behavior. He reasons that since he generally does not talk much in class discussions and tends to avoid large parties, he must be shy and introverted. Which of the following strategies for self-knowledge is Craig using?
Schachter’s (1964) two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we first experience ________ and then subsequently seek to ________.
While riding a harrowing roller coaster, Jim notices that the person sitting next to him is extremely attractive and he resolves to get her phone number when the ride is over. Jim is probably doing this because he is
According to the authors, programs which provide children large monetary rewards for reading,
Charles is motivated to see himself accurately. What kind of social comparison is he most likely to make?
The two major ways that a person may self-handicap are __________ and __________.
According to the authors of your text, the overjustification effect is the tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by something
Michelle is going to be rewarded for completing a task, no matter how well (or poorly) it is done. This is the best definition of
Kevin just got a low grade on his term paper. If Kevin has a ________ mindset, he would be most likely to give up and reduce his efforts in the class, feeling as though he is just “a bad writer.”
Lisa and Marcie have a really tough exam in anthropology. Both women are considering cheating on the exam. Based on what you read about cognitive dissonance, Lisa, who ________, is likely to later report that all cheaters should be punished severely, and Marcie, who ________, is likely to report that cheating really is no big deal because there are no victims.
When making a decision, the more __________ the decision, the greater the need for dissonance reduction.
In the aftermath of a dissonant behavior, people often change something about themselves as a means of reducing cognitive dissonance. This is known as
Misaki feels terrible after just failing an exam in Spanish class. Now, in chemistry class, her lab partner just left the answers to the homework open on her desk while she steps into the hall to take a phone call. How is Misaki likely to behave?
“There’s no way I’d give up drinking! I’d just be stressed out all the time” says Lilly, as she sips her third martini of the evening. Lilly’s comments about her drinking habit are an example of using ________ to reduce cognitive dissonance.
Ken participates in a psychology study where he has to make statements that are contrary to his thoughts and values. Then, the researchers reminded him of this inconsistency. Ken has participated in which of the following?
Which of the following is not a typical way of reducing cognitive dissonance?
Ying just purchased a rather expensive wristwatch. She had debated for weeks about the merits of two different styles before making her final decision. It’s now likely that Ying will
Lisa is a car salesperson. She has just gotten you to agree to a deal on a new car and to write out a check for the down payment. She takes this to her manager and comes back a while later saying that, because of taxes and fees, the price of the car will actually come out to $600 over what you agreed upon. According to the research on lowballing, which of the following is most likely to occur?
When our behaviors are inconsistent with our values or beliefs, we are not likely to experience cognitive dissonance if
In a study presented in the text (Peterson, Haynes, & Olson, 2008), smokers were asked to create an antismoking video to be shown to high school students, invoking dissonance in the smokers. These smokers, who particularly felt like hypocrites, were most likely to
According to the authors of your text, after carefully making a decision, what is likely to happen?