A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the puff of air is called the
Following extinction, a conditioned response can be learned again more quickly than it was learned originally. This process is called
Karen agrees to replace the toilet paper when it runs out if her roommate, Susan, will wash her dirty dishes every evening after dinner. This is an example of
Thorndike is to _____ as Skinner is to _______.
All but which of the following are primary reinforcers?
Ivan Pavlov’s initial research work was in the study of
Which of the following can best be described as an example of observational learning?
______ is the systematic application of operant conditioning to strengthen adaptive behavior and weaken maladaptive behavior.
Researchers use the method of successive approximations in the process of
Following his experience in the military, Hans developed a classically conditioned fear response to radio static. After he left the military, the response extinguished. However, after not hearing radio static for several months, Hans again shows the conditioned fear response. Hans’s experience is best described by
Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in _______ learning that is _______ to extinguish.
Presentation of a rewarding stimulus serves as ______, while removal of an aversive stimulus serves as ______.
Based on research presented in the text, which of the following is the best recommendation for disciplining children?
Regarding punishment, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Although Hannah knows that praise strengthens desirable behavior in children, she is not sure what specific strategies she should use. Which of the following guidelines should Hannah follow?
Zorba gives his dog a treat for rolling over. Zorba explains this procedure as a form of
In an application of classical conditioning principles reported in the text, how were sheep ranchers able to protect their sheep from coyotes?
Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not revealed in performance when it occurs is referred to as
Classical conditioning is best described as learning by
In applying a cognitive perspective to explaining classical conditioning, a psychologist would emphasize the extent to which the CS __________ the US.