HLTH 252 Quiz 1 An Introduction to Drug Use

HLTH 252 Quiz 1: An Introduction to Drug Use in America

  1. Which of the following statements defines the term “antecedents”?
  2. Which of the following statements is true of the relationships between substance use and various indicators of individual differences in personality variables?
  3. Compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees:
  4. One of the general principles of psychoactive drugs is that every drug has
  5. Michelle is an engineering graduate. She tried cocaine at a friend’s party, and it gave her an altered state of consciousness. She gradually became a regular user of the substance. With every use, she increased the chance of using the substance again. Identify this process of repeated use.
  6. One of the most important protective factors for drug use is:
  7. Despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, they can be especially informative:
  8. Which of the following is a limitation of the survey questionnaire studies on drug use among adolescents and young adults?
  9. One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on ________.
  10. The use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring is:
  11. DAWN data provides all of the following except:
  12. The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was not one of the three?
  13. In 2008 it was reported that the incidence of new HIV infections associated with intravenous drug use had declined by 80 percent in the past 20 years. According to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?
  14. In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are administered urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2013, about ________ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.
  15. Jonathan had tried cocaine when he was a school student and slowly started to use it regularly. He does odd jobs to earn money for buying cocaine. When he is unable to find jobs, he even robs people. Which of the following characteristics does Jonathan exhibit in this scenario?
  16. About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?
  17. Which of the following is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?
  18. Which of the following statements best describes the term “drug toxicity”?
  19. Which of the following statements is true of psychological dependence as a characteristic of substance use?
  20. When repeated exposure to the same dose of a drug results in a lesser effect, this is called:
  21. According to the text, which of the following most accurately describes the recent drug laws in Portugal?
  22. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that it is legal to use urine tests to screen students in public high schools for drug use:
  23. The Pure Food and Drugs Act and the Harrison Act were originally administered by the U.S
  24. Before a new drug is released to the market, the FDA requires:
  25. Which of the following statements is true of phase one of clinical investigations after the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorizes the testing of a drug in humans?
  26. It is estimated that ________ percent of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year.
  27. From the 1920s to the 1970s, about 1 out of 1,000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. By 2008, due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, that rate:
  28. One example where the U.S. interest in international drug control has conflicted with national security issues is:
  29. Before the FDA approves an IND for human testing of a new drug:
  30. Compared to urine samples, hair samples:
  31. Gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then return to its normal resting level, during each:
  32. The brain imaging technique that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain function is called:
  33. The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is
  34. Suppose you wanted to prescribe a hypothetical drug that would have an overall excitatory effect on the nervous system. Which would you choose?
  35. Which of the following neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory?
  36. In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as _
  37. A(n) ________ is defined as a mechanism in a nerve terminal membrane that is responsible for removing neurotransmitter molecules from the synapse by taking them back into the neuron.
  38. Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called _
  39. Alcohol, a psychoactive drug, inhibits the release of the antidiuretic hormone ________, which causes an increase in the excretion of urine.
  40. The ________ is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.
  41. If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing that drug, then later doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of:
  42. When the use of a drug interferes with normal behavior, experienced users may learn to compensate and show less impairment than new users. This is an example of:
  43. Most of our drugs originally came either directly or indirectly from:
  44. are a group of analgesic (painkilling) drugs that produce a relaxed, dreamlike state; moderately high doses often induce sleep.
  45. The most common way for drug molecules to be deactivated is by:
  46. Richard is a researcher in a pharmaceutical company. His company develops a new drug to treat chronic joint pain in humans. He wants to check the effect of this drug on a group of elderly people. He divides the group into an experimental group and a control group. He gives the new drug to the experimental group, while he gives a noneffective look-alike drug to the control group. Both groups give the same result. Identify the effect felt by the control group, despite not taking the drug.
  47. With increasing doses of any useful drug, there is usually an increase in the number and severity of:
  48. Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol can be classified as a(n) ________.
  49. The effects of a drug that depend on the presence of a chemical at certain concentrations in a target tissue are called
  50. After oral administration, most absorption of the drug molecules takes place in the:
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