HLTH 252 Test 1

HLTH 252 Test 1 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. Factors that are correlated with lower rates of drug use are known as:
  2. Which of the following statements is true of the relationships between substance use and various indicators of individual differences in personality variables?
  3. Which of the following statements defines the term “antecedents”?
  4. Compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees:
  5. Drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of a group to take corrective action when it occurs is:
  6. One of the most important protective factors for drug use is:
  7. One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on
  8. In one study, adolescents who smoked cigarettes were about twice as likely as nonsmokers to later use marijuana. For this reason, cigarettes have been referred to as:
  9. One very consistent finding is that students who report ________ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug than other students.
  10. One of the most important risk factors for drug use is:
  11. In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are administered urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2013, about ________ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.
  12. Which of the following statements best describes a drug recognition expert (DRE)?
  13. Which of the following statements best describes the term “drug toxicity”?
  14. Those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder:
  15. The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was not one of the three?
  16. Acute drug effects are those that:
  17. Which of the following statements is true of psychological dependence as a characteristic of substance use?
  18. In the context of substance use, ________ is defined as a procedure in which a behavioral event is followed by a consequent event such that the behavior is then more likely to be repeated.
  19. Which of these substances has the highest lifetime estimate of dependence?
  20. In the context of substance use, which of the following is the significance of the animal research that led to the positive reinforcement model?
  21. In the context of marketing a new drug, which of the following is the significance of the 1997 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act?
  22. The single most important legislation that has shaped the federal government’s approach to controlled substances was:
  23. Substances with high abuse potential and no currently accepted medical use are listed in:
  24. In the early 1800s, ________ was the medical doctor’s most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of conditions, but mainly for pain relief.
  25. The Harrison Act of 1914:
  26. Before the FDA approves an IND for human testing of a new drug:
  27. The Marijuana Tax Act was passed in:
  28. Which of the following statements is true of phase one of clinical investigations after the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorizes the testing of a drug in humans?
  29. According to current federal law, a fine of up to $10,000 and loss of all federal privileges (including student loans and grants) can result from conviction:
  30. From the 1920s to the 1970s, about 1 out of 1,000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. By 2008, due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, that rate:
  31. In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as ________.
  32. Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the:
  33. Specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and, when activated, may cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron are called ________.
  34. Which of the following statements is true of the functional imaging technique called the positron emission tomography (PET)?
  35. The brain imaging technique that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain function is called:
  36. ________ results from a loss of myelin wrappings.
  37. Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on:
  38. Cocaine selectively blocks Na+ (sodium) channels, which is the mechanism that leads to:
  39. Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called ________.
  40. Which of the following terms is defined as the maintenance of an environment of body functions within a certain range (e.g., temperature, blood pressure)?
  41. Which of the following statements is true of the potency of a drug?
  42. Which of the following would be a reason for a drug company not to pursue expensive clinical trails with a new drug?
  43. The most common way for drug molecules to be deactivated is by:
  44. The threshold on a dose-response curve is the:
  45. ________ are defined as the drugs that are inactive until acted on by enzymes in the body.
  46. With increasing doses of any useful drug, there is usually an increase in the number and severity of:
  47. The blood-brain barrier:
  48. Richard is a researcher in a pharmaceutical company. His company develops a new drug to treat chronic joint pain in humans. He wants to check the effect of this drug on a group of elderly people. He divides the group into an experimental group and a control group. He gives the new drug to the experimental group, while he gives a noneffective look-alike drug to the control group. Both groups give the same result. Identify the effect felt by the control group, despite not taking the drug.
  49. The group of psychoactive drugs called stimulants includes:
  50. The time course of a drug’s action depends on:

Set 2

  1. A cause of all ills is often referred to as
  2. In Chapter 1, which of the following is not specifically listed as a factor that affects how a user experiences a drug?
  3. The class of drugs known as inhalants include
  4. What percentage of full-time workers reported alcohol usage within the past month according to the National Household Surveys?
  5. Drugs prescribed by a physician to prevent or treat symptoms are generally referred to as
  6. In 2011, what percentage of U.S. population reported lifetime use of alcohol?
  7. In contrast to the past, today’s drug addiction mainly refers to
  8. The active ingredient(s) in tobacco that is addictive, colorless, and a highly volatile alkaloid is
  9. Drug users vary from one another in the following respects except for
  10. THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in
  11. At various times, drug dependence has been considered a(n)
  12. Substance-related mental disorders and primary psychiatric disorders are often
  13. This theory emphasizes that other people’s perceptions directly influence one’s self-image
  14. It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.
  15. can influence the effect alcohol has on the individual.
  16. The trait associated with turning ones feelings inward rather than directing emotions outward is known as
  17. Which of the following risk factors especially applies to adolescent drug use?
  18. is a term referring to a diminishing drug effect such that more is required to obtain the original effect.
  19. This theory explains drug use as largely peer-generated activity
  20. According to Becker, individuals come to experience the effects and pleasures of a drug through
  21. aims to protect drug users by teaching them responsibility.
  22. served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.
  23. If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription
  24. The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or non-prescription
  25. The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness
  26. The Pure Food and Drug Act required:
  27. attempts to decrease individuals’ tendency to use drugs with an emphasis on reformulating values and behaviors.
  28. Which of the following phases generally involves a few healthy individuals, and is designed to determine the safety of a drug
  29. Which of the following phases generally involves a few patients with a medical problem a drug is intended to treat and is designed to determine both safety and efficacy of a drug
  30. Decreasing the amount of drugs that are carried across U.S. borders is an example of
  31. Select the incorrect statement concerning the hypothalamus.
  32. Which of the following neurotransmitters is classified as a catecholamine?
  33. The nervous system is composed of all but which of the following?
  34. Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?
  35. Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?
  36. Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
  37. LSD is thought to do which of the following?
  38. Which of the following brain regions is most likely to directly regulate the endocrine systems?
  39. are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.
  40. Which of the following effects is least likely to be caused by a sympathomimetic drug?
  41. Select the correct statement.
  42. Which of the following can be toxic at sufficiently high doses?
  43. The __________ is the maximum drug effect, regardless of dose.
  44. Select the incorrect statement.
  45. The unpleasant effect that occurs when use of a drug is stopped is called
  46. Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?
  47. refers to changes that decrease response to a set dose of a drug.
  48. Which form of administration is likely to cause the fastest action?
  49. Which of the following statements concerning drugs administered orally is incorrect?
  50. Select the incorrect statement concerning “placebos.”

Set 3

  1. Which of the following is not one of the four classes of legal chemicals?
  2. In 2011, what percentage of U.S. population reported lifetime use of alcohol?
  3. Drug abuse is a problem that some believe dates from __________.
  4. Hallucinogens often affect the sense(s) involved with __________.
  5. The phase that is synonymous with addiction, where more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms, is __________.
  6. According to Erich Goode, ___________refers to using licit drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental or psychic state.
  7. Which Hispanic group had the highest use of illicit‐types of drugs?
  8. In 2011, what percentage of the U.S. population reported cigarette use in the past month?
  9. The belief that almost all abusers of more powerfully addictive drugs have first experimented with alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana, is also known as __________ theory.
  10. Drug users vary from one another in the following respects except for __________.
  11. Which of the following is/are primary factor(s) responsible for drug use?
  12. Travis Hirschi, a much respected sociologist and social control theorist, believes that delinquent behavior tends to occur when people lack __________.
  13. According to Becker, individuals come to experience the effects and pleasures of a drug through __________.
  14. All the major biological explanations related to drug abuse assume that these substances exert their __________ effects by altering brain chemistry or neuronal (basic functional cell of the brain) activity.
  15. Which of the following is not a reason why drug use is more serious today than ever before?
  16. __________ in 10 drug users work full time.
  17. It has been proposed that continual drug use __________ dopamine centers in the brain, which makes experiencing normal pleasure impossible.
  18. __________ reinforcement refers to the ratio between reinforcers, both favorable and disfavorable, for sustaining drug use behavior.
  19. The social psychological process of redefining a person’s image in light of recent information or knowledge about that person’s character is known as __________.
  20. In which way(s) can genetic factors directly or indirectly contribute to drug abuse vulnerability?
  21. The __________ served as the foundation and reference for subsequent laws directed at regulating drug abuse issues.
  22. The Pure Food and Drug Act required:
  23. __________ drugs have high abuse potential but are approved for medical purposes.
  24. The __________ allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription.
  25. Which of the following lists steps of drug development in the correct chronological order?
  26. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed in response to which of the following events?
  27. An over‐the‐counter drug ingredient not generally recognized as safe or effective for the claimed therapeutic indication is classified as __________.
  28. With the passage of the __________, the decline of patent medicines began.
  29. If a drug falls into which of the following categories, it will be classified as prescription.
  30. The __________ divided substances with abuse potential into categories based on the degree of their abuse potential and their clinical usefulness.
  31. Nicotinic receptors are activated by which of the following transmitters?
  32. Which structure has been found to be important in maintaining nicotine dependence?
  33. Neurotransmitters that have narcotic‐like effects are called __________.
  34. Select the incorrect statement concerning receptors in the nervous system.
  35. Which area of the cortex is the most developed in man?
  36. Which of the following neurotransmitters is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
  37. How much does the average brain weigh?
  38. Agents that antagonize the effects of acetylcholine are called __________.
  39. __________ are the cells in the nervous system that receive and send neurotransmitter messages.
  40. Which of the following is an accepted therapeutic use of androgens?
  41. Select the incorrect statement.
  42. Select the incorrect statement.
  43. Which of the following best describes synergistic drug interactions?
  44. Select the incorrect statement.
  45. Which of the following interactions best describes the analgesic effect when aspirin is combined with acetaminophen?
  46. Drugs administered using which of the following methods can enter the blood almost as quickly as intravenous injection?
  47. Which of the following best describes the concept “margin of safety”?
  48. The capacity of a drug to do damage or cause adverse effects in the body is called __________.
  49. Select the correct statement.
  50. Which of the following could contribute to individual variability in drug responses?
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