PSYC 341 Exam 7

PSYC 341 Exam 7 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. Which of the following is not one of the distinct outcomes of the evolutionary process of natural selection, sexual selection, and chance?
  2. _____ mechanisms are internal and specific cognitive, motivational, and personality systems that solve specific survival and reproduction problems.
  3. Psychological mechanisms relevant to personality can be grouped into _____ main categories.
  4. According to an analysis done by Nettle on the Big Five dimensions of personality, identify a fitness cost that was associated with having an extraverted personality during ancestral periods of evolution.
  5. One environmental source of personality differences is what Buss termed _____, by which he meant that childhood experiences make some behavioral strategies more likely than others.
  6. Buss argues for essentially the five personality dimensions (Big Five) proposed by McCrae and Costa but with slightly different terminology. Which is not one of Buss’s categories?
  7. _____ is marked by a tendency to take risks and to experience positive emotion (i.e., be happy) and initiating and maintaining friendships and relationships.
  8. Vincent feels that his parents neglect him and pay more attention to his brother, Mark. Mark regularly gets higher grades than Vincent. Vincent always outperforms his brother in football and basketball. In order to gain his parents’ attention,
    Vincent decides to be more academic. He stays back after class to learn new concepts, gets himself a tutor, and takes tests online to assess his learning. Which of the following statements is most likely true about the scenario?
  9. Ever since Charles Darwin, it has been clear that all life forms are confronted with two fundamental problems of adaptation, namely _____ and _____.
  10. The adaptive personality system that revolves around one’s capacity and commitment to work is
  11. Social psychologists use the term _____ to describe our tendency to ignore situational and environmental forces when explaining the behavior of other people and instead to focus on internal dispositions.
  12. Buss argues that the five main dimensions of personality (Big Five) can be best thought of as a way of summarizing the
  13. The differences in behavior have a biological basis and are known as _____, which lays the foundation for personality traits.
  14. Traits that happen as a result of adaptations but are not part of the functional design are called
  15. Evolutionary theory of personality rates relatively low
  16. Evolutionary theory of personality rates moderate
  17. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary theory of personality have their own scientific society called
  18. Which of these would not be considered by Skinner to be a generalized reinforcer?
  19. According to Skinner, advertising is a method of social control through
  20. Skinner saw creative behavior as being the result of
  21. Payment by piece rate (for example, paying a bricklayer a set amount for each brick laid) most closely approximates which schedule of reinforcement?
  22. Skinner saw the psychotherapist as a
  23. Karen’s teacher maintains a book that records every instance of misconduct by her students. Every time a student misbehaves, she adds a point against his or her name in the book. Karen’s students now stop misbehaving in class because they fear that the teacher will add points against their names. This is an example of
  24. Negative reinforcement and punishment are similar in that they both
  25. From the viewpoint of radical behaviorism, drives are
  26. Identify an accurate statement about operant conditioning.
  27. Which term is the least descriptive of B. F. Skinner?
  28. _____ takes place when an experimenter systematically withholds reinforcement of a previously learned response until the probability of that response diminishes to zero.
  29. For Skinner, an important distinction between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in classical conditioning, behavior is _____, whereas in operant conditioning, behavior is _____.
  30. For humans, playing slot machines best illustrates the influence of a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  31. In the context of operant discrimination, B. F. Skinner believed that discrimination is
  32. For Skinner, natural selection
  33. Skinner would view warfare as an example of
  34. Bandura sees deviant behaviors as
  35. In the context of human agency, Albert Bandura proposed that
  36. Bandura views human agency as
  37. An offender excuses his violent assault on his victim by claiming that the victim provoked the attack by dressing provocatively. According to Bandura, the technique of disengagement used by the offender is that of
  38. Which of the following is one of the basic assumptions of Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory?
  39. Albert Bandura agrees with B. F. Skinner that
  40. The bureaucrat who answers criticism by responding “That’s the way things are done around here” is using Bandura’s disengagement technique of
  41. To Bandura, the ultimate goal of social cognitive therapy is
  42. Bandura sees modeling as
  43. According to Bandura, in self-regulation, we may judge the worth of our actions on the basis of
  44. Bandura believes that _____ is a mechanism common to all successful therapy techniques.
  45. According to Bandura, disengagement of internal control is most likely to occur when
  46. In Bandura’s disengagement technique of displacement of responsibility, the consequences of one’s actions are minimized by
  47. Unlike Skinner’s behavioral analysis, Bandura’s social cognitive theory
  48. Which of the following best reflects Albert Bandura’s views on humanity?
  49. The notion that human action is a result of an interaction among three variables is what Bandura calls
  50. Which of the following statements is true about collective efficacy?

Set 2

  1. The term ______________ was coined in 1973 by biologist Michael Ghiselin (1973), and later popularized by the anthropologist John Tooby and psychologist Leda Cosmides in the early 1990s.
  2. For Charles Darwin, it has been clear that all life forms are confronted with two fundamental problems of adaptation, namely __________ and
  3. Buss and his colleague Heidi Greiling propose _______ distinct sources of individual differences
  4. Evolutionary theory of personality argues that the theory rates quite highly
  5. The fourth adaptive personality system revolves around one’s capacity and commitment to work and is the core characteristic of
  6. are evolved strategies that solve important survival and/or reproductive problems.
  7. The evolutionary process of natural and sexual selection and chance results in _____ distinct outcomes.
  8. Traits that happen as a result of adaptations but are not part of the functional design are called
  9. mechanisms are internal and specific cognitive, motivational, and personality systems that solve specific survival and reproduction problems.
  10. Which statement is most true for the evolutionary theory of personality as it relates as a guide for practitioners in psychology
  11. is change in gene function that does not involve changes in DNA
  12. People high in __________ are also driven and ambitious.
  13. The essence of Buss’s theory of personality revolves around adaptive problems and their
  14. Psychological mechanisms relevant to personality can be grouped into all the following categories, except:
  15. is also marked by a tendency to take risks and to experience positive emotions and initiating and maintaining friendships and relationships.
  16. Psychological mechanisms relevant to personality can be grouped into _______ main categories.
  17. The tendency to assume that the environment alone can produce behavior void of a stable internal mechanism is called
  18. As a young man, Skinner wanted to become a
  19. According to Skinner, scientists seldom fabricate data mostly because
  20. The label that best fits Skinner’s work is
  21. Concerning emotions, Skinner believed all EXCEPT which of the following?
  22. Skinner believed that some behavior is unconscious because the person does not think about the aversive stimuli connected with it. Not thinking about aversive stimuli is an example of
  23. For Skinner, natural selection
  24. To Skinner, human personality is shaped by
  25. The systematic withholding of reinforcement previously contingent upon a response until the probability of the response diminishes to zero is Skinner’s definition of
  26. Skinner believed that the most useful data for predicting and controlling behavior are
  27. Skinner believed that human behavior is shaped by all these factors EXCEPT
  28. Skinner’s technique of “doing something else” is used
  29. According to Skinner, the rate of operant extinction depends largely upon the
  30. The three conditions essential to operant conditioning are
  31. On the subject of dreams, Skinner believed that
  32. People who make rewards or punishments contingent on the behavior of another are using which of Skinner’s methods of social control?
  33. Skinner defines negative reinforcement as any condition that,
  34. For Bandura, learning through modeling involves
  35. Bandura recognizes all of these as processes that govern observational learning EXCEPT
  36. According to Bandura, collective efficacy
  37. The first requirement for internal self-regulation, according to Bandura, is
  38. In order for observational learning to lead to new response patterns, Bandura claims that those patterns must be
  39. Ordinarily, the strongest source of self-efficacy, according to Bandura, is
  40. Bandura believes that ______ is a mechanism common to all successful therapy techniques.
  41. According to Bandura, collective efficacy is lowered when
  42. Bandura holds that reinforcement is
  43. The bureaucrat who answers criticism by responding “That’s the way things are done around here” is using Bandura’s disengagement technique of
  44. Bandura’s treatment technique that involves the extinction of anxiety or fear through self- or therapist-induced relaxation is
  45. Compared to Skinner’s approach, Bandura’s theory is more
  46. Bandura believes that motivation to change dysfunctional behavior is enhanced by
  47. Bandura believes that both external and internal factors play a role in self-regulation. An example of an internal factor would be
  48. Bandura reasons that if behavior were completely a function of the environment,
  49. According to Bandura, depressed individuals are inclined to punish themselves severely for poor performance. This illustrates a distortion of
  50. A terrorist dismisses the death of one hostage as unimportant in comparison to the hundreds of his comrades killed by government security forces. This illustrates Bandura’s disengagement technique of

Set 3

  1. is also marked by a tendency to take risks and to experience positive emotion (i.e., be happy) and initiating and maintaining friendships and relationships.
  2. Traits that happen as a result of adaptations but are not part of the functional design are called
  3. Social psychologists use the term ______________ to describe our tendency to ignore situational and environmental forces when explaining the behavior of other people and instead focus on internal dispositions.
  4. Buss argues that the five main dimensions of personality (Big Five) can be best thought of as a way of summarizing the
  5. Two goals and motives that act as evolved mechanisms are ‐
  6. is change in gene function that does not involve changes in DNA
  7. Which of the following is not one of the distinct outcomes of the evolutionary process of natural selection, sexual selection, and chance?
  8. Buss argues for essentially the same five personality dimensions (Big Five) but with slightly different terminology. Which is not one of Buss’s categories?
  9. Evolutionary theory of personality rates moderate
  10. The fifth adaptive personality system is the evolved strategy of ____________ involves one’s propensity for innovation and ability to solve problems.
  11. Evolutionary theory of personality’s concept of humanity is most surprising due to its stance on
  12. involves the disposition to experience positive emotional states and to engage in one’s environment and to be sociable and self‐confident.
  13. The differences in behavior have a biological basis and are known as __________ which lays the foundation for personality traits.
  14. The tendency to assume that the environment alone can produce behavior void of a stable internal mechanism is called
  15. A second origin of environment induced individual differences is which means that different people find what makes them stand out from others in order to gain attention from parents or potential mates.
  16. The third adaptive personality system revolves around response to danger and threat and is referred to as
  17. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary theory of personality has its own journal called
  18. Payment by piece rate (for example, paying a bricklayer a set amount for each brick laid) most closely approximates which schedule of reinforcement?
  19. Which of the following is NOT a principal characteristic of science, according to Skinner?
  20. What was Skinner’s position on such internal mental states as thinking and feeling?
  21. Skinner believed that some behavior is unconscious because the person does not think about the aversive stimuli connected with it. Not thinking about aversive stimuli is an example of
  22. To stop her 2‐year‐old daughter from crying, Sandy consistently gives the child a piece of candy whenever she cries. Such behavior is
  23. The three conditions essential to operant conditioning are
  24. On the subject of dreams, Skinner believed that
  25. John Watson argued that
  26. Skinner believed that the most useful data for predicting and controlling behavior are
  27. Skinner’s view of humanity can best be termed as
  28. Which term is LEAST descriptive of B. F. Skinner?
  29. Skinner saw creative behavior as being the result of
  30. Skinner’s laboratory research at Harvard consisted exclusively of experiments
  31. Skinner’s midlife crisis and emotional catharsis ended with
  32. Skinner called any stimulus within the environment that strengthens behavior a
  33. Young Tyler has learned that his mother always hides the cookies on the top shelf of the hall closet. After Tyler’s mother noticed cookies missing, she decided to hide the cookie jar in a new place. After several unrewarding trips to the top shelf of the hall closet, Tyler stops looking there. Skinner would say that the disappearance of this response is due to
  34. According to Bandura, the four core features of human agency are intentionality, _____, self‐reactiveness, and self‐reflectiveness.
  35. With regard to learning, Bandura believes that
  36. In modeling, Bandura claims people are most likely to attend to
  37. For Bandura, learning through modeling involves
  38. The notion that behavior is a consequence of a mutual interaction of three forces is what Bandura calls
  39. In his concept of humanity, Bandura assumes that
  40. In Bandura’s disengagement technique of displacement of responsibility, the consequences of one’s actions are minimized by
  41. According to Bandura, observing a model being punished for performance will decrease one’s likelihood of
  42. A notable feature of Bandura’s theory is
  43. Like most people, Madison relies on other people such as the police, the fire department, and mechanics to exercise indirect control over her life. Bandura calls this situation
  44. A terrorist dismisses the death of one hostage as unimportant in comparison to the hundreds of his comrades killed by government security forces. This illustrates Bandura’s disengagement technique of
  45. According to Bandura, collective efficacy
  46. Erick is confident that he has the skills and abilities to be an excellent professional baseball player. However, he is uncertain whether he will be offered a job as a player. Thus, according to Bandura, he has ______ efficacy expectations and _______ outcome expectations.
  47. On the issue of determinism versus free will, Bandura favors a position that emphasizes
  48. Selective activation refers to Bandura’s belief that self‐regulatory influences
  49. In Bandura’s theory, chance encounters enter at which point in the triadic reciprocal cauastion paradigm?
  50. Bandura claims that phobias are difficult to extinguish because they
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