PSYC 341 Exam 6

PSYC 341 Exam 6 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. The concept of humanity embodied by trait and factor theories is best described as
  2. Which of Cattell’s media of observation cannot be used with animals such as dogs or cats?
  3. The advocates of the Five-Factor Theory favor the _____ rotation method of factor analysis.
  4. The five factors of the Five-Factor Model have been found across cultures and show some permanence with
  5. Although factor and trait theories are difficult to rate on several dimensions with respect to the concept of humanity, they clearly rate very high on
  6. Which of the following statements is true of the individuality postulate of basic tendencies?
  7. Which of the following statements is true of Raymond B. Cattell’s pioneering work on personality theory?
  8. In the context of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which of the following is one of the strongest and most ubiquitous personality traits?
  9. Which of the following was an ideal factor that allowed Costa and McCrae to investigate the question of how personality is structured?
  10. Characteristic adaptations differ from culture to culture because
  11. Cattell’s famous personality scale is called the
  12. Identify a true statement about characteristic adaptation as a core component of the Five-Factor Theory.
  13. Individuals who score high on _____ tend to be anxious, temperamental, emotional, and vulnerable to stress-related problems.
  14. Which of the following statements is true of trait and factor theorists’?
  15. The Five-Factor Model (FFM) includes _____ as a trait that reflects an affectionate, active, fun-loving, and passionate person.
  16. Which of the following statements is true of the postulates for characteristic adaptations?
  17. Research on traits and emotion tends to support the hypothesis that
  18. People who consistently seek out different and varied experiences score high on
  19. According to Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, _____ are defined as the universal raw material of personality capacities and dispositions that are generally inferred rather than observed.
  20. The principal difference between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations is their
  21. According to Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, _____ is defined as everything a person does, thinks, or feels across his or her whole lifespan.
  22. People who score low on openness to experience tend to
  23. In general, research testing the Five-Factor Model across cultures has revealed that
  24. The Five-Factor Theory rests on a single causal influence on personality traits, namely
  25. According to Costa and McCrae, maladjustment occurs when
  26. Eysenck’s three general types or superfactors are
  27. According to the four-level hierarchy of behavior organization proposed by Hans J. Eysenck, _____ are at the highest level of behavior organization.
  28. Hans J. Eysenck described a trait as
  29. According to Hans J. Eysenck, extraverts can be described as being
  30. In Eysenck’s theory of personality, the three basic factors of P, E, and N are
  31. Eysenck’s encounter with the fascist right and his later battles with the radical left suggested to him that the trait of _____ was equally prevalent in both extremes of the political spectrum.
  32. According to Eysenck, an individual characterized by hysteria, suggestibility, and somatic symptoms would score high on the _____ scale.
  33. According to Grossarth-Maticek, who had very low deaths from either cancer or cardiovascular disease?
  34. Which trait theorist was a native of Germany but lived and worked for much of his professional life in England and at the University of London?
  35. In the context of Eysenck’s biologically based factor theory, the key for Eysenck was that the individual differences in people’s personalities were due to
  36. Which of the following was proposed by Hans J. Eysenck?
  37. According to Eysenck, high P scorers are
  38. Eysenck claimed that introverted neurotics are characterized by all of the following except
  39. Eysenck believed that the primary difference between extraverts and introverts is one of
  40. According to Hans J. Eysenck, which of the following statements is true about people who score high on neuroticism?
  41. According to Hans J. Eysenck, introverts can be described as being
  42. Eysenck’s P type is a bipolar factor consisting of
  43. A major thrust of Eysenck’s theory is that personality results from the basic genetic and neurophysiological makeup of humans. Which biological research findings support this assertion?
  44. The people who most influenced Eysenck were
  45. Which of the following is not listed by Eysenck as a criterion for identifying a factor?
  46. Which of the following statements is true about Hans J. Eysenck’s biologically based factor theory?
  47. Which of the following is not one of Eysenck’s criteria for identifying factors?
  48. Which of the following is not one of the personality assessments created and developed by Eysenck?
  49. Some people are vulnerable to psychiatric illness because they have a genetic or acquired weakness that predisposes them to the illness. This explanation for an illness is what Eysenck called the
  50. According to the four-level hierarchy of behavior organization proposed by Hans J. Eysenck, _____ are at the lowest level of behavior organization.

Set 2

  1. Which term best describes the “acquired personality structures that develop as people adapt to their environments”?
  2. A _________ is a classi cation of things according to their natural relationships while a _______ can both predict and explain behavior.
  3. People who consistently seek out di erent and varied experiences would score high on
  4. The principal di erence between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations is
  5. Which of the following statements would NOT be generally acceptable to factor and trait theorists?
  6. Research on traits and emotion tends to support the hypothesis that
  7. Individuals who score high on ____________ tend to be anxious, temperamental, emotional and vulnerable to stress‐related problems.
  8. Although factor and trait theories are di cult to rate on several dimensions for a concept of humanity, they clearly rate very high on
  9. Traits generated through factor analysis may be either _____ or ______.
  10. McCrae and Costa used the concept of personal myths to equate to which concept(s)?
  11. Cattell’s famous personality scale is called the _______.
  12. The Five Factors have been found across cultures and show some permanence with
  13. The essence of basic tendencies is their basis in biology and their ______ over time and situation.
  14. Personality psychologists are more likely to attribute behavior to _________.
  15. McCrae and Costa (1996) objected to earlier personality theories as over‐relying on
  16. Trait theorists rely mostly on which method of identifying traits?
  17. The key, ideal factor that has allowed Costa and McCrae to investigate the trait‐ structure of personality has been
  18. McCrae and Costa’s Five‐Factor Model (FFM) can both ______ and _____ behavior.
  19. McCrae and Costa agree with Eysenck that personality traits are ______ and follow the bell shaped distribution.
  20. Today most researchers who study personality traits agree that __, and only __, and no fewer than __ dominant traits continue to emerge from factor analytic techniques.
  21. In the Five‐Factor theory, behavior, in part, is predicted by three core components. Which of the following is NOT a core component?
  22. The Five‐Factor Model (FFM) of personality shares origins with Eysenck’s model in that
  23. Which of Cattell’s media of observation could NOT be used with animals such as dogs or cats?
  24. The Five‐Factor Theory rests on a single causal in uence on personality traits. What is it?
  25. In general, research testing the Five‐Factor model across cultures has revealed
  26. Eysenck and Grossarth‐Maticek found that
  27. The people who most in uenced Eysenck were
  28. Which trait theorist was a native of Germany, but lived and worked for much of his professional life in England and at the University of London?
  29. Eysenck argued that many experimental studies on the same topic yield inconclusive or inconsistent results because the experimenters failed to
  30. Eysenck believed that the primary di erence between extraverts and introverts is one of
  31. What evidence did Eysenck present on the biological bases of personality?
  32. According to Eysenck’s ndings, cold, nonconforming, and aggressive personalities tend to score high on
  33. According to Eysenck, high P scorers are
  34. A trait is best described as
  35. Eysenck believed that introverts are characterized by
  36. Eysenck claimed that introverted neurotics are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
  37. Eysenck’s three general types or superfactors are
  38. Research on traits and emotion tends to support the hypothesis that
  39. In Eysenck’s theory of personality, individuals who tend to be empathetic, caring, cooperative, and highly socialized score
  40. Mathematically, the technique of reducing a number of variables to a smaller number is called
  41. In factor analysis, correlations of scores with factors are called
  42. A _________ is a classi cation of things according to their natural relationships while a _______ can both predict and explain behavior.
  43. Which of the following is NOT listed by Eysenck as a criterion for identifying a factor?
  44. Eysenck’s psychoticism factor (P) is characteristic of
  45. Which of the following is not one of Eysenck’s criteria for identifying factors?
  46. Which is the correct order of levels of behavioral organization from the simplest to the most complex, according to Eysenck?
  47. In general, the purpose of factor analysis is to
  48. Which is not one of the four levels of hierarchy behavior organization recognized by Eysenck?
  49. Traits generated through factor analysis may be either _____ or ______.
  50. Eysenck’s P type is a bipolar factor consisting of

Set 3

  1. Although factor and trait theories are difficult to rate on several dimensions for a concept of humanity, they clearly rate very high on
  2. Individuals who score high on ____________ tend to be anxious, temperamental, emotional and vulnerable to stress‐related problems.
  3. Which biological mechanisms are rated as most influential on the basic tendencies?
  4. At present, most researchers who study personality traits favor the idea that _________ dominant traits emerge from the statistical techniques used to sift through volumes of test data.
  5. The concept of humanity embodied by the Factor and Trait theories is best described as
  6. Cattell’s famous personality scale is called the
  7. Cattell and McCrae and Costa both used an (a) _________ of gathering data.
  8. Cattell attempted to measure human personality from three directions, using L data, Q data, and T data. Which of the following is an example of T data?
  9. Personality psychologists are more likely to attribute behavior to
  10. Which of the following statements best reflects our understanding of the stability of personality traits according to the Five‐Factor model?
  11. Characteristic adaptations differ from culture to culture because
  12. The Five Factors have been found across cultures and show some permanence with
  13. In Cattell’s inductive method of research,
  14. Which of the following is NOT an example of the four postulates for basic tendencies?
  15. The total number of primary traits, both normal and pathological, that Cattell and his associates identified is about
  16. is defined as “everything the person does, thinks or feels across the whole life span”.
  17. Using the NEO‐PI (1992) personality inventory, Costa and McCrae revealed two additional trait dimensions. They are
  18. Which term best describes the “acquired personality structures that develop as people adapt to their environments”?
  19. Research on traits and emotion tends to support the hypothesis that
  20. Costa and McCrae first solidified their long research collaboration as colleagues
  21. Which of Cattell’s media of observation could NOT be used with animals such as dogs or cats?
  22. In the Five‐Factor theory, behavior, in part, is predicted by three core components. Which of the following is NOT a core component?
  23. The Five‐Factor model rates _______ as a trait that reflects an affectionate, active, fun‐ loving and passionate person.
  24. The principal difference between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations is
  25. A _________ is a classification of things according to their natural relationships while a _______ can both predict and explain behavior.
  26. Research on traits and emotion tends to support the hypothesis that
  27. According to Eysenck’s findings, cold, nonconforming, and aggressive personalities tend to score high on
  28. Which of the following is NOT listed by Eysenck as a criterion for identifying a factor?
  29. A major thrust of Eysenck’s theory is that personality results from the basic genetic and neurophysiological makeup of humans. Which biological research findings support this assertion?
  30. A _________ is a classification of things according to their natural relationships while a _______ can both predict and explain behavior.
  31. Which of the following is not one of Eysenck’s criteria for identifying factors?
  32. Which trait theorist was a native of Germany, but lived and worked for much of his professional life in England and at the University of London?
  33. What evidence did Eysenck present on the biological bases of personality?
  34. Some people are vulnerable to organic and psychiatric illness because they have a genetic or acquired weakness that predisposes them to the illness. This explanation for an illness is what Eysenck called the
  35. Eysenck claimed that introverted neurotics are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
  36. Eysenck’s psychoticism factor (P) is characteristic of
  37. In Eysenck’s theory of personality, the three basic factors of P, E, and N are
  38. Eysenck claimed that extraverted types are characterized by all the following traits EXCEPT
  39. The people who most influenced Eysenck were
  40. Mathematically, the technique of reducing a number of variables to a smaller number is called
  41. The key for Eysenck was that the individual differences in people’s personalities were due to
  42. Eysenck’s second wife, Sybil Rostal, was a
  43. Eysenck’s P type is a bipolar factor consisting of
  44. In general, the purpose of factor analysis is to
  45. Eysenck believed that introverts are characterized by
  46. Which of the following is not one of the personality assessments created and developed by Eysenck?
  47. Which is not one of the four levels of hierarchy behavior organization recognized by Eysenck?
  48. Eysenck’s encounter with the fascist right and his later battles with the radical left suggested to him that the trait of __________, was equally prevalent in both extremes of the political spectrum.
  49. In Eysenck’s theory of personality, individuals who tend to be empathetic, caring, cooperative, and highly socialized score
  50. Eysenck believed that the primary difference between extraverts and introverts is one of
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