PSYC 341 Exam 1

PSYC 341 Exam 1 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. Which of the following statements is true about descriptive research?
  2. A researcher uses the number of times a person smiles at others as a measure of friendliness. This an example of
  3. _____ assume that not only are people driven by a search for meaning, but also that negative experiences such as failure, awareness of death, death of a loved one, and anxiety, are part of the human condition and can foster psychological growth.
  4. Which of the following statements is true about personality theories?
  5. Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis?
  6. Which of the following statements is true about psychodynamic theories?
  7. Which of the following is not a function of a useful theory?
  8. A theory may be set aside when it
  9. What is the relationship between a useful theory and research data?
  10. The _____ perspective argues that how one thinks about oneself and other people, as well as the assumptions one makes and the strategies one uses for solving problems, are the keys to understanding differences between people.
  11. Which of the following theories emphasizes that what people think, feel, and do is always an interaction between nature and nurture?
  12. A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses is
  13. _____ argue that the unique and long-term tendencies to behave in particular ways are the essence of human personality.
  14. The term “personality” comes from the Latin word “persona,” which means
  15. The extent that a test predicts some future behavior is referred to as
  16. A test that can accurately divide extraverts from introverts is said to have
  17. Statements formed in an if-then framework are most likely
  18. If scores on an instrument that measures introversion correlate highly with a number of other measures of introversion—for example, shyness and inhibition—then that instrument is said to have
  19. Which of the following statements is true about humanistic-existential theories?
  20. Part of the internal consistency of a theory is
  21. Which of the following statements is true about theory?
  22. Which of the following statements is true about a reliable test?
  23. Which of the following is not a dimension used by the authors to assess a theorist’s concept of humanity?
  24. The personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories, and social experiences of personality theorists help shape their theories. The discipline that deals with these factors is called
  25. A useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it should be
  26. Which of the following terms is defined as a defense mechanism whereby a person returns to an earlier stage to protect the ego against anxiety?
  27. Freud’s psychoanalysis rests on which two cornerstones?
  28. A mother who has deep-seated hostility toward her only child but shows overprotection and hyper-concern for the physical well-being of her child illustrates which Freudian defense mechanism?
  29. Freud believed that the superego develops from the
  30. Amy, an 18-month-old child, resorts to taking her baby sister’s bottle even though she has previously been weaned. This behavior illustrates which Freudian defense mechanism?
  31. According to Freud, which of the following statements is true about the genital period in infants?
  32. The use of Freudian defense mechanisms requires an
  33. After the female Oedipus complex is resolved, Freud claimed that it is replaced by
  34. According to Freud, a girl’s wish to be a boy or to have a baby
  35. Freud’s notion of phylogenetic endowment refers to
  36. Freud’s oral-sadistic stage is characterized by
  37. According to Freud, which of these region(s) of the mind is (are) in contact with the external world?
  38. Freud believed that the ego begins to evolve from the id soon after birth. While the ego is developing, the id
  39. Asking a patient to verbalize thoughts, no matter how absurd, irrelevant, or embarrassing, is the Freudian technique of
  40. According to Freud, dreams have meaning on two levels. The more important level concerns the
  41. The paintings and sculptures of Michelangelo best exemplify Freud’s concept of
  42. Which of the following areas of psychological research have recently joined to provide support for Freud’s theory of unconscious motivation?
  43. Dreams of patients suffering from traumatic neuroses, or posttraumatic stress disorder, follow the Freudian principle of
  44. A man goes into a gay bar and initiates a fight with a homosexual man as a result of his own unconscious homosexual impulses. This is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism?
  45. According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following terms refers to the apprehension one feels while in the presence of a teacher?
  46. According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following statements is true about castration complex in girls?
  47. Which of the following terms is defined as a defense mechanism that arises when psychic energy is blocked at one stage of development, thus making change or psychological growth difficult?
  48. In the context of psychoanalytic theory, identify a true statement about Sigmund Freud.
  49. Freud claimed that during the Oedipal period, a boy
  50. Sigmund Freud saw the resolution of the Oedipus complex as the prototype of

Set 2

  1. The personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories, and social experiences of personality theorists help shape their theories. The discipline that deals with these factors is called
  2. The basic data of science are
  3. A reliable test
  4. A test that can accurately divide extraverts from introverts is said to have
  5. An educated guess that can be scientifically tested is a definition of
  6. Part of the internal consistency of a theory is
  7. A theory may be set aside when it
  8. A taxonomy is best defined as
  9. Which of these is NOT a function of a useful theory?
  10. The ultimate value of any theory depends on its
  11. Theories are built primarily on
  12. What is the proper place of theory within science?
  13. Statements formed in an if‐then framework are most likely
  14. Any test that correlates with future behaviors is said to have
  15. The word personality comes from the Latin word “persona”, meaning
  16. Descriptive research
  17. Personality theorists who adopt a teleological approach generally believe that people’s behavior is a function of
  18. Which statement is most nearly true?
  19. Personality theorists have evolved different systems because
  20. Which of the following is NOT a dimension used by the authors to assess a theorist’s concept of humanity?
  21. A useful theory must be falsifiable, which means that
  22. A useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it should be
  23. A set of related assumptions from which, by logical deductive reasoning, testable hypotheses can be drawn is
  24. The variety of personality theories now is due to
  25. Which statement best characterizes the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis?
  26. According to Freud, which of these region(s) of the mind is (are) in contact with the external world?
  27. Freud believed that condensation and displacement
  28. According to Freud, a masochist may receive sexual pleasure from
  29. The function that fights against id impulses regardless of what is realistic or possible is what Freud called the
  30. Which anxiety does Freud claim most nearly resembles fear?
  31. Freud held that the secondary process functions through
  32. Freud believed that the ego begins to evolve from the id soon after birth. While the ego is developing, the id
  33. According to Freud’s theory, anxiety
  34. Freud believed that a little girl’s Oedipal wish for a baby is a substitute for the
  35. Dreams of patients suffering from traumatic neuroses, or posttraumatic stress disorder, follow the Freudian principle of
  36. Freud believed that instincts are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
  37. Freud’s three levels of mental life are
  38. Freud’s notion of the superego includes
  39. Bettelheim argued that psychoanalysis should be seen as a
  40. The superego, said Freud,
  41. The “royal road to the unconscious” was thought by Freud to be
  42. Tyler greatly admires his geometry teacher and tries to copy his mannerisms and lifestyle. This is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism?
  43. Freud called the nonsexual love a child has for a sibling
  44. The principle source of frustration during Freud’s anal phase is
  45. According to Freud, feelings of inferiority stem from the
  46. Freud’s free association technique evolved from
  47. Freud called an expression of both the sexual and the aggressive instinct
  48. From a Freudian perspective, psychological maturity might be characterized by
  49. Trained psychoanalysts can interpret dreams
  50. According to Freud, a teenager preoccupied with self and personal appearance is exhibiting

Set 3

  1. Part of the internal consistency of a theory is
  2. Theories are built primarily on
  3. A useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it should be
  4. Personality theorists have evolved different systems because
  5. Personality theorists who adopt a teleological approach generally believe that people’s behavior is a function of
  6. Which of these is NOT a function of a useful theory?
  7. A theory may be set aside when it
  8. Descriptive research
  9. Any test that correlates with future behaviors is said to have
  10. The basic data of science are
  11. Which statement is most nearly true?
  12. The ultimate value of any theory depends on its
  13. Statements formed in an if‐then framework are most likely
  14. A set of related assumptions from which, by logical deductive reasoning, testable hypotheses can be drawn is
  15. The variety of personality theories now is due to
  16. The two MOST important functions of a theory are its
  17. Psychologists generally agree that personality
  18. A reliable test
  19. Which statement best characterizes the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis?
  20. What is the proper place of theory within science?
  21. A useful theory must be falsifiable, which means that
  22. The personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories, and social experiences of personality theorists help shape their theories. The discipline that deals with these factors is called
  23. An educated guess that can be scientifically tested is a definition of
  24. According to the authors of the text, personality theories
  25. A test that can accurately divide extraverts from introverts is said to have
  26. Freud held that castration anxiety
  27. Which of these progressions is most consistent with psychoanalytic theory?
  28. Among Freud’s personal qualities were
  29. Seeing deficiencies in others that one unconsciously feels within oneself is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism
  30. A compulsively neat person who is also stubborn and miserly is what Freud called an
  31. The id is primarily involved in which of the following activities, according to Freud?
  32. Asking a patient to verbalize thoughts, no matter how absurd, irrelevant, or embarrassing, is the Freudian technique of
  33. The apprehension one feels while in the presence of a teacher is what Freud called _______ anxiety.
  34. The classical Freudian anal character possesses all of the following traits EXCEPT for?
  35. The most basic Freudian defense mechanism is
  36. Tyler greatly admires his geometry teacher and tries to copy his mannerisms and lifestyle. This is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism?
  37. According to Freud, a masochist may receive sexual pleasure from
  38. The principle source of frustration during Freud’s anal phase is
  39. In Freudian theory, dreams are seen as
  40. According to Freud, a boy who feels strong hostility toward his father and sexual love for his mother is experiencing
  41. According to Freud, the ego’s dependency on the superego results in
  42. According to Freud, all people possess two major instincts or drives. They are
  43. According to Freud, ideas that slip in and out of awareness with greater or lesser degrees of ease are
  44. Shevrin, Ghannam, and Libet recently found that the defense mechanism of ______ might have a neurophysiologic basis.
  45. Freud claimed that during the Oedipal period, a boy
  46. Freud’s notion of phylogenetic endowment refers to
  47. According to Freud, the genital period
  48. According to Freud, normally, in post‐Oedipal identification with his father, a boy
  49. According to Freud, a guilt‐ridden, timid person is most likely dominated by
  50. Freud began his famous self‐analysis
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