HLTH 330 Exam 2

HLTH 330 Exam 2 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. Active ____________ is required to maintain normal blood calcium and phosphorus levels.
  2. The terms “distilled water” and “purified water” are examples of water that come from underground sources rather than from municipal sources.
  3. Antioxidants act by enhancing the formation of free radicals.
  4. When blood pressure is ________ the pressure created by osmosis, water is drawn back into the capillaries replacing fluids and electrolytes.
  5. The majority of this lipid is located in cell membranes. It is also part of myelin, the insulating coating on nerve cells.
  6. Outward symptom of hypertension:
  7. Lipids that are consumed in the diet are absorbed into the intestinal mucosal cells. From here, all of the following molecules, with the exception of ____, are not soluble in water, and are thus packaged for transport.
  8. The shape of a protein is essential to its function.
  9. When your diet is high in iron, the gene that codes for the protein ferritin, which stores iron, is turned on. This scenario best describes which of the following processes?
  10. Thyroid stimulating hormone decreases with iodine deficiency.
  11. The order and chemical properties of ________ in a polypeptide chain determine how the polypeptide fold, and thus the shape of the molecule formed.
  12. The best way to ensure that you meet your nutrient needs without taking a dietary supplement is to:
  13. All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of vitamin B12 except:
  14. Too much water is a problem for the human body because it can change the osmotic balance.
  15. When fluoride intake is low, tooth decay is more frequent.
  16. Which of the following is not a function of fat in foods?
  17. In general, plant proteins are used ____ efficiently as animal proteins to build proteins in the human body.
  18. The development of atherosclerosis has been linked to diets that are high in cholesterol, saturated fat, and trans fat.
  19. Postmenopausal bone loss occurs in women for about ________ after the menstrual cycle stops.
  20. Cells that are deficient in vitamin A become hard and dry because they produce this protein:
  21. Which of the following MyPlate food groups is the richest in vitamin B12?
  22. Prescription drugs and herbs are alike in that each dose contains the same amount of active ingredients.
  23. Which of the following is not a function of lipids in the body?
  24. Plant foods generally are excellent sources of the health promoting foods. These types of plant foods usually contain:
  25. The best food sources for folate and for vitamin B12 are fresh fruits and vegetables.
  26. Too much water is a problem for the human body because it can change the osmotic balance.
  27. A deficiency of a trace mineral is just as damaging to your health as a deficiency of a major mineral.
  28. All of the following are true about omega-3 fatty acids EXCEPT:
  29. Water intoxication is a condition that occurs when a person drinks enough water to significantly lower the concentration of ____ in the blood.
  30. During the synthesis of a protein, a shortage of one amino acid will not stop synthesis, but two or more missing amino acids will impact protein synthesis negatively.
  31. If there is a shortage of an essential amino acid in the body, the absence of that amino acid limits protein synthesis.
  32. Most Americans consume more than enough grams of protein daily.
  33. Which of the following vitamins must be included on the food label?
  34. The following is a description of what Bryan ate yesterday. The sources of fat that he ate were mainly from visible sources of fat. Breakfast – poptart, glass of 2% milk Lunch – French fries, hamburger Snack – cheese and crackers Dinner – Baked potato with butter and sour cream, green beans, baked chicken drumsticks Snack – ice cream
  35. Women of childbearing age should consume ________ daily from fortified foods or supplements.
  36. Which of the following is NOT a function of water in the human body?
  37. The majority of lipid digestion occurs here:
  38. Which list below best reflects the minerals that aid transmission of nerve impulses and provide for optimal muscle contraction?
  39. Folate deficiency can lead to macrocytic or megablastic anemia.
  40. The fat content of the U.S. diet is not thought to be the only reason for the incidence of increasing obesity in the United States. Which of the following best explains the increase in obesity?
  41. In general, plant sources of protein provide ____________ absorbable forms of iron, zinc, and calcium, as compared to animal protein sources.
  42. An adequate consumption of riboflavin is crucial for the conversion of several other vitamins.
  43. Based on the type of fat found in the following foods, which would be the healthiest choice for lunch from the fruit group?
  44. Low maternal folate intake increases the risk of birth defects called neural tube defects
  45. Phytic acid, tannins, and oxalates ________ the absorption of many minerals.
  46. This term refers to the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration relative to the body’s needs:
  47. This enzyme is produced in the stomach. It breaks some of the peptide bonds in polypeptide chains.
  48. A family member has been taking Vitamin C supplements but is now wondering if they should continue to spend money on these supplements. What have you learned about Vitamin C that might help them with an evidence-based decision?
  49. Because fat-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body to any great extent, deficiency symptoms are quick to appear.
  50. The thirst sensation is activated when blood volume is low, thus the solute level is more concentrated.

Set 2

  1. If the diet is deficient in one or more of the ________ amino acids, the boy must break down existing proteins to provide the needed amino acids.
  2. Protein quality is a measure of how good the protein in a food is at providing the non-essential amino acids the body needs to synthesize proteins.
  3. All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of vitamin B12 except:
  4. When salivary amylase enters the stomach, the acid causes the structure of this enzyme to change so that it is no longer able to function. This change in structure is called:
  5. Which list below best reflects the minerals that keep blood healthy and immune function strong?
  6. The diffusion of water in a direction that equalizes the concentration of dissolved substances on either side of a membrane best defines which of the following terms?
  7. In its role as an antioxidant, this vitamin guards cell membranes, body proteins, DNA, and cholesterol and thus helps prevent heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and other chronic diseases.
  8. Intake of fish, nuts, and whole grains ________ heart disease risk.
  9. Protein and amino acid supplements are rarely needed to increase protein needs.
  10. All of the following foods contain cholesterol except:
  11. Most of the nitrogen we lose is lost in:
  12. Supplements of which of the following nutrients may be needed by older adults?
  13. The development of atherosclerosis has been linked to diets that are high in cholesterol, saturated fat, and trans fat.
  14. In general, plant sources of protein provide ____________ absorbable forms of iron, zinc, and calcium, as compared to animal protein sources.
  15. A poorly planned vegan diet is likely to be deficient in all of the following, except:
  16. Which of the following statements regarding thiamin is true?
  17. If there is a shortage of an essential amino acid in the body, the absence of that amino acid limits protein synthesis.
  18. Niacin is synthesized in the body from the amino acid
  19. When blood pressure is ________ the pressure created by osmosis, water is drawn back into the capillaries replacing fluids and electrolytes.
  20. Niacin supplementation can be toxic.
  21. All calcium in the body is found in the bone.
  22. Because water is an excellent solvent, the chemical reactions of metabolism that support life take place in water.
  23. When a nerve cell is stimulated, the cell membrane becomes ________ permeable to ____.
  24. Which lipoprotein contains the highest proportion of cholesterol?
  25. Based on the type of fat found in the following foods, which would be the healthiest choice for breakfast from the grains group?
  26. Water intoxication is a condition that occurs when a person drinks enough water to significantly lower the concentration of ____ in the blood.
  27. Most of the water-soluble vitamins are bound to blood proteins for transport.
  28. Men are affected a decade earlier than are women by heart disease.
  29. For some of the amino acids that our body needs, we must get them from dietary sources because the body cannot make them in sufficient quantities to meet our body’s needs.
  30. Each gram of fat from the diet contains __ calories:
  31. The FDA approves the safety and effectiveness of supplements before they are marketed.
  32. Like carbohydrate, water provides 4 kcal of energy per gram.
  33. HDLs _______
  34. When a nerve cell is at rest, potassium is concentrated ____ the nerve cell and sodium is concentrated ________ the nerve cell.
  35. All cis and trans fatty acids are unsaturated.
  36. A goiter occurs as a result of deficiency of:
  37. All of the following are true about omega-3 fatty acids EXCEPT:
  38. In its role as protection, water resists compression, allowing it to cushion joints and other parts of the body against shock. Which of the following best exemplifies this function?
  39. What occurs when a cofactor binds to an enzyme?
  40. All of the following minerals are needed for the functioning of antioxidant enzymes except:
  41. Excess body weight is associated with ________ risk of osteoporosis development.
  42. Antioxidants act by enhancing the formation of free radicals.
  43. There are no known risks to taking dietary supplements.
  44. Of the following, which is the highest quality plant protein source?
  45. The protein molecule that is found in red blood cells that transports oxygen to body cells:
  46. A diet that is based on plant proteins alone cannot meet most people’s protein needs.
  47. When vitamin D is deficient, calcium absorption is greatly affected.
  48. Which of the following is not an essential fatty acid?
  49. If a person follows a very low-fat diet for an extended amount of time, the bioavailability of which vitamins will be impacted the most?
  50. A woman of childbearing years who is not pregnant has a ________ absorption rate of calcium as compared to a women who is pregnant.
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