A __________________ can provide a uniform definition for all possible financial transactions.
This budget format is the oldest used by states and cities
budgeting focuses on developing measurements to evaluate if inputs produced desired outcomes rather than just increasing spending.
This legislation represents a significant constraint on public budgets
Which of the following is not a function of budgeting?
A budget is a plan of action expressed in…
This level of government is not required to balance its budget every year.
expenditures refer to expensive and long-lasting goods.
The actors involved in budgeting have _________________ motivations and goals.
funds are used for every day expenses.
budgets are funded through borrowing rather than tax revenues.
In ____________________ budgeting, there is a focus on effectiveness and efficiency.
One of the advantages of __________ budgeting is the need for a minimal amount of staff in order to create and track a budget
A Fund is
summarize and understand complex governmental budgets by stating how governments use their resources over time.
Which of the following best defines ‘Revenue’ as a budgetary term?
The _______ orientation or perspective views the budget strictly as a technical document.
This decision-making cluster deals with questions of whether balance should be achieved by increasing revenues, decreasing expenditures, or both
budgets establish a budget for day to day expenditures.
Why is the public budgeting process a craft according to Chen et al?
How are public budgets different than private budgets?
The Preamble to the US Constitution is an enacting clause, justifying the authority to create a national government. What is its primary role?
Given the powers granted in the US Constitution, what is an enumerated power?
Which of the following best identifies “Federalism” as a political theory?
Spending Legislation includes “Authorization Acts.” Which of the following identifies an “Authorization Act”?
The act of Congress that permits federal agencies to incur obligation and make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes is an
Which of the following best defines the term “Deficit” as a budgetary term?
What is “Reconciliation” relative to the budget process?
Constitutionally speaking, what is the legitimate purpose for Congress’ power to tax and spend?
Which of the following best defines the term “Surplus” as a budgetary term?
Which of the following best defines the term “Revenue” as a budgetary term?
What is the significance of Amendment X of the Bill of Rights?
A yearly accounting period established by the federal government beginning October 1, and ending on September 30 is
Permanent appropriations represent the authority to spend as provided in authorizing legislation without the need for subsequent annual appropriations. Which of the following is not budgeted as part of a permanent appropriations bill?
The US Constitution requires that all revenue measures originate in the House of Representatives, as opposed to the Senate. How is revenue derived?
Given the powers granted in the US Constitution, what is reserved power?
Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in immediate or future outlays involving federal government funds is referred to as
Which of the following describes the amount of checks issued, interest accrued on most public debt, or other payments as well as net of refunds and reimbursements?
What is the province of congressional authority relative to the “General Welfare Clause” of Article 1, Section 8, Clause 1?
In Federalist 41, James Madison is rehearsing a “General View of the Powers Proposed to be Vested in the Union,” and among various categories of power, he discusses “the necessity of the power of taxation.” He states: “Some, who have not denied the necessity of the power of taxation, have grounded a very fierce attack against the constitution, on the language in which it is defined. It has been urged and echoed, that the power “to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States,” amounts to an unlimited commission to exercise every power, which may be alleged to be necessary for the common defence or general welfare.” Madison then immediately claims that “No stronger proof could be given of the distress under which these writers labour for objections, than their stooping to such a misconstruction.” Which of the following best describes Madison’s argument against such a board description of the Federal government’s taxation authority?
Which of the following best defines “Direct Spending” as part of the US Budget?
“Spending Legislation” includes “Appropriation Acts.” Which of the following identifies an “Appropriations Act”?
Spending authority that permits a federal agency to incur obligations and to make payments for specified purposes out of funds borrowed from the Treasury or the public is referred to as
Which of the following describes the process for keeping expenditures within the major elements of the budget by requiring that additions to outlays above amounts set by the budget resolutions or in law be made up by new sources of revenue or by reductions elsewhere within that category?
Which of the following relates to legislation that requires the payment of benefits to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility requirements established by law, and considered a binding obligation on the part of the federal government?
Appropriations include provisions which impact how federal departments and agencies spend appropriations. One such provision is an “Earmark,” defined below as