GOVT 462 Exam 2

GOVT 462 Exam 2 Liberty University Answers


  1. Accountability is increasingly a focal point in public administration. Why are public agencies subjected to greater accountability than the private and non-profit sectors? Is this emphasis on budget accountability constructive or more of an unnecessary nuisance? Discuss some of the ways localities as well as the state and federal government attempt to demonstrate accountability.
  2. Why are public budgets both a technical and a political document?
  3. is an example of a current asset
  4. One different between federal budgeting and local budgeting is that the local budgeting process tends to be more
  5. A government that is considering privatizing or outsourcing its payroll function should consider which of the following:
  6. The following are examples of mandatory spending except
  7. The _______branch of government sets the agenda and established priorities to which the __________________branch of government must react.
  8. A(n) ________________ statement is a profit-and-loss statement.
  9. Which of the following is true about the annual balanced budget mandate?
  10. is when the quantity of money seeking to purchase services and good increases faster than quantity of goods offered
  11. On way states may choose to balance their budget is by
  12. A ______________statement of financial position for a time- assets, liabilities, and net assets.
  13. In order, identify the five budgetary decision clusters
  14. What is the first component of the implementation cycle that tends to evolve into abuse and control?
  15. The formula debt-to-asset ratio= total liabilities in a ratio analysis measures
  16. GASB provides government entities with
  17. Typically cities with IGs have a history of ______________.
  18. Municipal bonds are issued by states and localities to do which of the following
  19. A _________________________is a graph with three levels, the project title, and several activities and a list of the resources needed to perform the activities.
  20. States are facing challenges in part because of a sluggish economy and because of future liability. An example of a future liability for a state or locality is
  21. The federal budget is potentially a means of controlling the economy. ________________ policy focuses on taxing and spending and is controlled by
  22. Which of the following statements is true about the Tenth Amendment?
  23. What is the difference between the national debt and the federal deficit?
  24. Budgeting for performance in a governmental entity is:
  25. This state is the only one that does not require a balanced budget
  26. Using this type of analysis, allows for an enhanced understanding of the liquidity and financial solvency of an entity.
  27. The use of Cost-benefit analysis is a relatively new tool used by budget analyst in evaluating opportunities providing the highest social benefit.
  28. and _________________ are the two major types of municipal bonds used by government entities.
  29. What kind of capital projects receive priority?
  30. An example of a liability is
  31. Solvency is
  32. A ________________ is the summary of the financial balances held by an organization at a specific time.
  33. A large share of both municipal and county budgets is devoted to:
  34. The primary source of local tax revenue is
  35. The formula working capital=current assets -current liabilities
  36. fund capital projects
  37. are tangible items bought with revenues.
  38. The federal budget reflects the partisan conflict over the appropriate size of government. If you are a liberal, you may want to __________________ taxes to pay for social welfare programs. If you are a conservative, you may want to ____________________programs to balance the budget and restrain the size of government.
  39. In a state or local government, the budget for which of the following most likely occurs first?
  40. Liquidity is measured by dividing the following
  41. Ethics in public budgeting represent a _________________ code of conduct while morals represent _______beliefs
  42. Opportunity cost in a cost -benefit analysis is a measure of


  1. Which of the following is not a key function or purpose of the OMB?
  2. Which of the following best defines an ‘entitlement’ program?
  3. Which of the following is incorrect relative to an early American understanding of the nature of property?
  4. What has been one of the most significant consequences of misconstruing the ‘General Welfare Clause’ of the Constitution?
  5. Some entitlements programs are ‘means tested.’ What is meant by this?
  6. What is the foundation of private property ownership and the justification of the system of private property?
  7. According to Madison, what sort of property is the most valuable, and with it, what is the role of civil government?
  8. Why are budgeting and entitlement programs incompatible concepts?
  9. True or False: If Congress’s budget resolution were to become law, it would require greater cooperation between Congress and the President at the start of the budget cycle.
  10. True or False: The budget is the financial reflection of what government does or intends to do.
  11. Which of the following does not sufficiently explain why entitlement programs grow?
  12. On October 21, 2009 briefly interviewed then House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer (D‐MD‐5th) at his weekly press briefing. He was asked “where in the Constitution was Congress granted the power to mandate that a person must buy a health insurance policy?” Hoyer responded: “Well, in promoting the general welfare the Constitution obviously gives broad authority to Congress to effect that end, . . . The end that we’re trying to effect is to make health care affordable, so I think clearly this is within our constitutional responsibility.” What is so disconcerting about the Congressman’s response?
  13. Which of the following options best represents the textual intent of Article 1, Section 8, Clause 1 of the Constitution?
  14. The ‘General Welfare Clause’ has been invoked to substantiate spending for numerous domestic and foreign aid programs. If Congress’ authority to provide for the ‘general welfare and common defence’ is limited to the subsequent specified powers, which of the following could be considered a legitimate expenditure?
  15. Which of the following does not adequately explain the difficulties associated with budget reform?
  16. When may Congress pass a ‘Continuing Resolution,’ which may take the form of a ‘continuing omnibus resolution’?
  17. What is the significance of James Madison’s February 6, 1792 congressional speech against Hamilton’s “Report”?
  18. What is the most significance aspect of Alexander Hamilton’s 1791 “Report on Manufacturers” relative to the jurisdiction of the national government?
  19. According to an early American understanding, what is the jurisdiction of civil government relative to property?
  20. Why does a balanced budget amendment prove difficult as a budget reform measure?
  21. What is PPB, otherwise known as ‘Planning, Programming, Budgeting’?
  22. True or False: One of the fallacies of the line‐item veto is pretending that a President has no political preferences and is uninterested in the exercise of power.
  23. According to the Heritage Foundation’s 2011 Budget Chart Book, mandatory spending has increased five times faster than discretionary spending. Given the nature of the federal budget process, how can this occur?
  24. Which of the following entitlement program comparisons are incorrect?
  25. Reforming the federal budget entails consideration of its substance and process. Budget discipline could be established through deficit reduction. What is meant by deficit reduction?
  26. Which of the following is not a true budget reform measure?
  27. Modern arguments in favor of aid, whether domestic or foreign, tend to turn on a legal as opposed to a moral duty to rescue. What have been the policy consequences of this shift in the concept of rescuing others?
  28. Another aspect of budget reform can be sought in differentiating between capital and operating budgets. What is meant by ‘Capital Budgeting’?
  29. True or False: According to Wildavsky, it is possible to pursue budget reform apart from conflict within and between agencies, committees, and bureaus.
  30. Which of the following cannot be categorized as a mandatory spending program?
  31. According to Madison, the jurisdiction of civil government is the protection of property in its external dimension only.
  32. What is a ‘moral duty’ in contrast with a ‘legal duty’?
  33. Social Security is one of the largest and fastest growing entitlement programs, and once operated as a ‘pay‐as‐you‐go’ system. What does this mean?
  34. What is meant by ‘Religious Liberty’ relative to restraint in regards to man and the state?
  35. According to the Heritage Foundation’s 2011 Budget Chart Book, which of the following is incorrect relative to entitlement spending?
  36. Regardless of the moral arguments for entitlement programs, why do they pose such a budget concern?
  37. According to Justice Joseph Story in his 1854 A Familiar Exposition of the Constitution of the United States, why is the Preamble to the Constitution important to consider?
  38. What was the purpose of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, otherwise known as the Gramm‐Rudman‐Hollings Act?
  39. According to Wildavsky, budget decisions have become increasingly difficult to agree upon. Which of the following is not a reason for such difficulty?
  40. Which Supreme Court Case is linked with the suit over the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)?
  41. Which of the following is not a benefit of a biennial budget cycle?
  42. What does Wildavsky mean by ‘The Politics of Dissensus’?
  43. One popular but very short‐lived measure was the Line‐Item Veto Act of 1996, established under the first Clinton Administration. Why is it difficult to pursue a line‐item veto as a potential reform measure?
  44. Discretionary spending can be divided in three spending categories. Which of the following is not a discretionary spending category?
  45. What is meant by ‘permanent appropriations’?
  46. Which of the following will provide information on international aid?
  47. During the successive Reagan and Bush Administrations (1981‐1992), what was the predominant Republican Party program relative to the federal budget?
  48. What is the significance of United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936) relative to the expansive legislative scope of the national government?
  49. According to the Heritage Foundation’s 2011 Budget Chart Book, which of the following is correct?
  50. The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) provides what sort of data?
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