ETHC 210 Chromosome Lab Activity 1
Chromosomes are condensed forms of DNA. DNA is much longer than the cell in which it resides, so it undergoes a series of steps involving winding and folding around proteins. The final product is a chromosome. Chromosomes are also designed to “cross over” or exchange DNA with each other. This creates new combinations of genes and is one of the ways that sexually reproducing organisms create offspring that are unique individuals genetically. To help you understand what chromosomes are and what they do, you will construct chromosomes and visualize them within the nucleus.
In this lab, you will construct chromosomes from a kit from Carolina Biological Supply. Follow the instructions as stated for construction of the chromosomes, then answer a series of short answer questions and write a short essay (see assessment below).
- Meiosis and Mitosis Chromosome Simulation Kit, Carolina Biological Supply
- String, short rope, or masking tape to make outline of nucleus
- Phone/tablet/computer camera, or digital camera
- Lewis text: ch. 2 (Sections 2.1, 2.3)
- Carolina Distance Learning Investigation Manual: Mitosis and Meiosis: Chromosome Simulation, pp. 4–13
Construct and observe your chromosomes within the nucleus. To do this, follow the instructions in the Carolina Distance Learning Investigation Manual Activity 1: Mitosis section and complete steps 1–3. Do NOT go on to step 4; you will be completing that step in Chromosome Lab Activity 2.
Take a photo of your Interphase chromosomes. Each of the following questions involves a 1-word answer. Upload your answers as 1-word answers and number them 1–10. Also, upload your photo with your answers. See below instructions for the short essay.
Short Answer and Photo (10 pts for answers and 15 pts for photo = 25 pts):
- Chromosomes are constructed of DNA and ________________________.
- Humans are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes numbering _______________ total.
- When chromosomes are duplicated, they look like an “X”-shaped structure. The two strands of chromosomes are attached at the __________________________.
- In humans and all creatures constructed of eukaryotic cells, the DNA always resides in the _______________.
- The yellow and red chromosomes you constructed are similar, and therefore, both of them together are considered to be a ______________________ pair.
- In this assignment, you constructed the first phase of mitosis called________________.
- During both mitosis and meiosis, chromosomes are aligned and pulled apart with the help of a cytoskeletal fiber called ____________________.
- Microtubules or spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes and pull them apart during mitosis. The microtubules radiate from structures you included in your simulation called _____________________.
- In order for the chromosomes to be separated successfully during mitosis or meiosis, the membrane of the _________________ must be disassembled.
- Meiosis and mitosis are part of a nuclear division process called _____________________.
Short Essay (25 pts):
Describe the significance and importance of mitosis and meiosis to life in current Turabian format. The short essay must be 100–140 words and demonstrate course-related knowledge. The short essay must include 1 citation from the Bible and an outside source cited in current Turabian format. (References are not included in the final word count.)