Reading and writing numerals are similar to teaching children the alphabet and reading. Identify the statement below that would be developmentally inappropriate for early learners.

The concepts of more, less, and same are basic relationships that contribute to children’s understanding of numbers. Identify the one relationship that if a child is unable to use they may be at educational risk.

Here is a possible list of the kinds of things children should learn about any number up to 20 while in pre-k or kindergarten. All of them are appropriate EXCEPT:

One of the best ways for children to think of real quantities is to associate numbers with measures of things. What concept would not emerge from using estimation?

An important variation of part-part-whole activities is referred to as missing- part activities. Identify the statement below that describes a missing part activity.

What number property is illustrated by the problem 16 × 12 = 16(10 + 2) = 160 + 32 = 192?

Which problem is an example of the equal groups, number of groups unknown structure?

Which problem represents the compare, difference unknown structure?

What is the importance of students knowing the commutative property?

Identify the problem that represents the join, result unknown structure.

The reasoning strategies below are used when a student knows a fact and uses that fact to derive the unknown fact EXCEPT:

What statement most accurately describes a person who has mastered basic facts?

All of the following are recommendations that can support students’ ability to quickly recall basic facts EXCEPT:

Which method is the least effective to mentally compute 8 + 7?

The ________ property is valuable because it cuts the number of multiplication/addition facts to be learned in half.

What would be a strong indication that students are ready to begin place- value grouping activities?

What is the major challenge for students when learning about three-digit numbers?

The statements below are true of patterns and relationships on a hundreds chart EXCEPT:

What mathematical representation would help students identify patterns and number relationships?

What does not aid in the relational understanding of place value?