offer graduated levels of supervision and provide rewards for positive behavior, with gradually less supervision when offenders are successful.
refers to a sentencing philosophy that encourages rehabilitation and incorporates a broad sentencing range in which discretionary release is determined by a parole board, and based on the offender’s remorse commitment to bettering his/herself.
Community corrections are sanctions that may be completed after a defendant serves time in prison.
Robert Martinson, a social scientist tasked with examining prison programming in the United States during the 1960s, determined that correctional rehabilitation programs were effective at reducing recidivism.
Community corrections acts were developed as statewide agreements through which local government could receive funding to develop community correctional sanctions.
King Henry VII is known as the “father of probation” due to his work in humanizing the criminal codes of England.
The “casework model of community corrections” that occurred from 1900 to 1970 in the United States emphasized fairness and due process.
To protect children from exploitation in the early to mid-1800s, the New York Children’s Aid Society
The community model of corrections made the assumption that all criminality was caused by psychiatric problems, and the undesirable behaviors could be modified only through professional counseling.
is the conditional release of a convicted offender from a correctional institution, under the continued custody of the state, to serve the remainder of his or her sentence under supervision in the community.
parole is a way to control medical costs and allow low-risk offenders to live out their remaining days with their families in a structured release setting.
About one-third of U.S. states have a(n)____________ structure that limits the discretion of parole boards for felonies.
A judge’s decision to allow a defendant to serve a community corrections sentence depends on the offender’s eligibility, by law, for a community corrections sentence.
Hearsay information may be permitted in a PSI report, if the judge is willing to waive the verification necessity.
is a defendant’s supervised release from jail into the community for the purpose of securing the defendant’s next court appearance as an alternative to pretrial detention.
Successfully completing diversion will result in no official criminal record for the accused.
The single most important element in preventing recidivism for adult probationers and parolees is having strong family ties.
contacts, such as teachers, employers, or relatives, are valuable for probation/parole officers to speak with since these individuals have direct contact with the offender.
A ____________ plan includes the main goals the offender will work on during probation/parole, how the offender must pursue those goals, the strengths the offender has to draw upon, and how the officer can help the offender meet those goals.
According to the Interstate Compact, the sending state retains the ultimate authority to modify the conditions of probation, revoke probation, or terminate probation.
Drug courts began in the late
Jails and prisons are the largest mental health institutions in the country.
Alcoholics may take __________, which is a prescription medicine that reacts with a person’s system if he or she ingests alcohol.
It has been determined that many veterans returning from active combat-related military service have some measurable level of depression and
Probation is conditional, meaning that the probationer’s liberty is subject to compliance with specified rules.
Over half of all parolees who had their parole revoked and were returned to prison faced revocation because of
Approximately ______ of probationers successfully complete supervision.
are in-house approaches that take place when an offender shows initial signs of resistance or when technical violations first start.
The CREST program combines a therapeutic community program with
Halfway houses provide reintegration assistance, but they are primarily geared toward minimizing risk. Therefore, workers may experience role conflict, which is a clash between __________ and treatment goals.
If prison or correctional administrators are the key decision makers when sentencing offenders to intermediate sanctions, there is a greater tendency that they will choose offenders who should have received probation.
In general, eligible candidates for boot camps are young repeat felony offenders convicted of various types of nonviolent offenses, and who meet minimum physical requirements.
Day reporting centers are for offenders on probation or parole only.
When a supervising officer uses a handheld receiver to wirelessly verify an offender’s physical location, he or she is using
The idea for use of EM devices in the criminal justice system was inspired by New Mexico Judge Jack Love, who saw how the comic book character Spiderman was tracked by a wrist transmitter.
DRC programs seem to fare well as a ______ program for prisoners, especially when compared with the outcomes of prisoners who are freed under no supervision and parolees under traditional parole.
A fine is defined as a fixed monetary sanction imposed by the probation officer, with the amount based on the defendant’s ability to pay.
The goal of community justice is to utilize community stakeholders to control and ultimately reduce crimes.
Some victims’ groups are opposed to the restorative justice initiatives because they believe them to be
Fines are used in about ______ of all state felony cases, most typically as an addition to probation.
Drug crimes typically require full board review for parole decisions.
A parole release _______ is when the parole board delays its final decision to grant or deny parole to a later time.
Many occupations required a license to practice or legitimately work; these licenses require ______, which makes it difficult for convicted felons to obtain them.
Federal law provides mandatory release when an offender has served __________ of a term five years or longer, unless the offender has serious disciplinary infractions in prison or there is a high probability of recidivism.
The maximum eligibility date is the longest amount of time that can be served before the inmate must, by law, be released.
Currently all 50 states have record sealing statues, primarily to protect juveniles from lifelong discrimination due to one mistake committed as a child.
The theory of risk/need/responsivity is also known as the principles of correctional intervention.
A pardon that freely and completely absolves an individual from the legal consequences of his or her crime is a(n) __________ pardon.
When a person has lost a professional license due to conviction, a pardon