The three main decision points in the corrections system are bail, sentencing, and
Pretrial supervision is reserved for those who have not yet been convicted.
Which of the following is not considered a determinate sentencing philosophy?
Roughly, how many people are currently under some form of correctional supervision in the United States?
require an offender to serve a specified portion of his or her sentence prior to release
Determinate sentencing is often referred to as
refers to any activity or program that is conducted to prepare parolees to return safely to the community and to live as law-abiding citizens.
In early British criminal law, a(n) _____ was a monetary penalty imposed arbitrarily at the discretion of a court for an offense.
The “brokerage of services era of community corrections” involved identifying the needs of probationers and parolees and referring them to an appropriate community agency.
Who is known as the “father of probation” for the United States?
The “brokerage of services” model in community corrections sought to provide
The ____________________ community corrections model is currently being utilized in the United States and is characterized by an effort to have probation officers return to establishing meaningful and professional relationships with their clients in a blended dual role: a therapeutic change agent and enforcer.
is the term that refers to the early privileged release from a penal or correctional institution of a convicted offender, who will remain under the continual custody of the state by serving out his/her sentence in the community.
Commonwealth v. Chase (1831) is often cited as an early example of how corporal punishment was first used in the United States.
Under the medical model, the court set a minimum and maximum release date and the parole board determined when the appropriate time was to release the offender back into the community. This is a(n) _________ sentence.
Medical parole occurs when medical doctors and experts in the community advise the prison officials that they must release a prisoner because his or her medical condition is such that the prisoner is going to cost more than the average offender per day to incarcerate.
Each year in the United States, approximately __________ state and federal prisoners are released from prison and placed under community supervision.
Parolees typically serve _____ under supervision in the community.
A parole board makes decisions about _____ release.
Less than half of all U.S. parolees are able to successfully complete their parole term.
Most correctional authorities agree that it is not feasible to control prison populations in the long term by the use of specific parole board actions.
is an agency that assists the court in deciding whom to release and whom to detain based on validated assessment instruments and a pretrial interview of the defendant.
Hearsay information may be permitted in a PSI report, if the judge is willing to waive the verification necessity.
Occasionally a court will order a report to be written when a court has proceeded directly to the sentencing phase without benefit of a PSI, usually after the court has accepted a plea bargain. This report is referred to as a
Which of the following is not one of the standard conditions of community sanctions?
With presumptive sentencing grids, judges are obligated to use guidelines from which they may not deviate without providing written reasons as to why they have chosen to do so.
Judges engage in _____, which means that each individual case is considered in terms of its subjectivities, harms, wrongs, and contexts, and then measured against concepts such as oppression, freedom, dignity, and equality.
Pretrial detention rates have been steadily decreasing in the federal system.
Employment status, substance abuse, and lack of housing are all considered _____ factors.
At the lowest level of supervision, there may be no requirement that the probationer personally visit or contact a probation officer, referred to as administrative supervision or banked probation.
The __________ are considered the basis by which correctional treatment programs should operate.
Cognitive-behavioral programs are a specific category of therapy programs that have not shown promising results thus far, when applied to today’s correctional clients.
In regard to risk assessment as it pertains to probation and parole decisions for release, females tend to pose less of a risk to their communities then men.
A ____________ plan includes the main goals the offender will work on during probation/parole, how the offender must pursue those goals, the strengths the offender has to draw upon, and how the officer can help the offender meet those goals.
Central to the concept of evidence-based practice is the concept that it does not matter how large the caseload is as long as it is properly classified.
Therapeutic communities are better suited for long-term ___________ addictions.
Therapeutic communities focus on the long-term treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction and abstinence from substances for criminal offenders.
The treatment retention model recommends that treatment for offenders should begin while they are incarcerated.
Officers who supervise ISP clients have smaller caseloads, in order to allow each officer greater contact in hopes of enhancing public safety.
In the Supreme Court case of _______________, the Court held that a sex offender treatment program did not violate the 5th Amendment’s privilege against self- incrimination when it required that offenders acknowledge past crimes, insofar as doing so was the beginning of the rehabilitation process and acceptance of responsibility for their actions.
Roughly 10% to 15% of probationers and parolees are eligible for inclusion in a specialized caseload.
Addiction to more than one kind of drug for an extended period of time is known as ____________ use.
Revocation can only occur for either a technical violation or the commission of a new crime.
Most probationers and parolees tend to have their probation/parole revoked for ongoing technical violations over a given period of time.
According to your text, most absconders leave because of
Graduated sanctions most often utilized by community services officers do NOT include which of the following?
In all states, the warrant to revoke is issued by a court and served by law enforcement officers or probation officers.
The probation officer has the discretionary authority to revoke probation.
Which of the following offenders are most likely to be successful on parole?
are in-house approaches that take place when an offender shows initial signs of resistance or when technical violations first start.