PSYC 380 Exam 2

PSYC 380 Exam 2 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. In the visual system, the ____ and ____ constantly feed information back and forth.
  2. The primary visual cortex sends its information ____.
  3. When cells in the middle temporal cortex respond to visual stimuli, their response depends mostly on the ____.
  4. Laurence is able to drive his car within a lane since he can clearly see the lines and edge of the road. His nervous system enhances his ability to see edges by ______.
  5. Light has entered Joelle’s eyes. After being detected by the photoreceptors, the information will be passed on to _____ cells.
  6. ____ cells axons make up the optic nerve.
  7. As a human, Lino is really good at detecting motion. This is because of his _____.
  8. In foveal vision, ____.
  9. Noella is a makeup artist and is very good at using makeup to create fine details to create a visual effect (ex. making a person look older). As she works, her ______ cells help her to see the details.
  10. The primary visual cortex is also known as the ____.
  11. Which ability would be most impaired with damage to the vestibular senses?
  12. Pain receptors of the skin are ____.
  13. The sensory aspect of pain activates the ____ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ____ cortex.
  14. Professor Schimke is giving a lecture on the somatosensory system. He tells the class that sensory information travels from the thalamus to the _____.
  15. Signe got her ears pierced. The earring was placed in her _____.
  16. Studies with placebos and studies using hypnotism suggest that much of the reduction in pain is the result of decreased activation in the ____.
  17. Vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea cause ____.
  18. Tinnitus may be ____.
  19. Reduced response to one taste after exposure to another is referred to as ____.
  20. What occurs to a tone as the frequency increases?
  21. According to the activation-synthesis hypothesis, it should be possible to predict (with better than chance accuracy) the content of a person’s dreams if we know what information about the person?
  22. The pineal gland releases the ____ hormone, which influences both circadian and circannual rhythms.
  23. What happens after damage to the suprachiasmatic nucleus itself?
  24. Charley is currently in Stage 4 sleep. The next stage he will enter will most likely be _____.
  25. Who has the greatest risk of having sleep apnea?
  26. While Arlette is sleeping, her locus coeruleus is _____.
  27. Lena is taking antidepressants that increase her levels of serotonin. What is likely true about her sleep?
  28. Professor Lamon tells his class that humans experience several different circadian rhythms which all last _____.
  29. Research suggests that REM is ____.
  30. Mammals have circadian rhythms ____.
  31. Leonora loves eating carbohydrates. When she does, they are initially broken down in her _____.
  32. The blood’s glucose level ordinarily remains relatively constant because of the activity of ____.
  33. Who is doing a project on a homeostatic mechanism?
  34. The brain finds out about the degree of stretch of the stomach from ____.
  35. Luigi got a deep cut on his foot and started losing a lot of blood. To compensate, his body released ____ to _____ his blood pressure while he was waiting for help to arrive.
  36. What does the eating cycle of bulimia have in common with addictive drugs?
  37. The temperature required by reproductive cells of birds and most mammals is ____.
  38. The small intestine ____.
  39. Graig is experiencing hypovolemic thirst. His type of thirst _____.
  40. Which group would most likely benefit from taking leptin?

Set 2

  1. Why do humans perceive faint light better in the periphery of the eye?
  2. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, the most important factor in determining the color we see is the ____.
  3. V1 neurons would be most strongly activated by viewing ____.
  4. Someone with prosopagnosia has difficulty with ____.
  5. What type of cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation anywhere within its large receptive field, regardless of the exact location of the stimulus?
  6. In order to be able to see things in her periphery, Pauline’s _____ need to be activated.
  7. Branches of the optic nerve go directly to what areas of the brain?
  8. Which structure has the largest receptive fields and the greatest preferential sensitivity to highly complex visual patterns, such as faces?
  9. Which receptors are responsible for the perception of color?
  10. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision ____.
  11. A tonotopic map refers to a(n) ____.
  12. Why can’t Torie tickle herself?
  13. Morphine and other opiate drugs decrease sensitivity to pain by ____.
  14. The tympanic membrane connects to three tiny bones that transmit the vibrations to the ____.
  15. What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain?
  16. Loudness is to ____ as pitch is to ____.
  17. Pacinian corpuscles respond best to ____.
  18. What sound characteristics can be compared between the two ears to locate the source of the sound?
  19. Shelton was given morphine because he was experiencing ____.
  20. Deeta is a supertaster. As a result, she _____.
  21. While Arlette is sleeping, her locus coeruleus is _____.
  22. During ____, cells in the pons send messages that inhibit the motor neurons that control the body’s large muscles.
  23. Cells in the basal forebrain increase arousal and wakefulness by releasing ____.
  24. Which hypothesis suggests that dreams are just thinking that takes place under unusual conditions?
  25. Which statement is true with regard to the duration of a self-generated sleep/activity cycle?
  26. Who has the greatest risk of having sleep apnea?
  27. Professor Steinberg tells her class that during a normal sleep cycle, a person will progress from _____.
  28. Compared to REM, research suggests that NREM is ____.
  29. After damage to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the body ____.
  30. Professor Morant tells her class that the most potent zeitgeber for land animals (including humans) is _____.
  31. Which hormone, released by the posterior pituitary, both raises blood pressure and enables the kidneys to reabsorb water?
  32. Homeothermic organisms include ____.
  33. What causes hypovolemic thirst?
  34. Many kinds of information impinge onto two kinds of cells in one nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is regarded as the “master area” for control of appetite. That area is the ____.
  35. The tendency of water to flow across a semipermeable membrane from the area of low solute concentration to the area of higher concentration is termed ____.
  36. An animal has trouble digesting its food after damage to the ____.
  37. Electrical stimulation of a rat’s lateral hypothalamus would most likely result in ____.
  38. Sodium-specific hunger is closely associated with ____.
  39. Who is doing a project on a homeostatic mechanism?
  40. The large intestine ____.

Set 3

  1. Dyes such as cresyl violet are useful for staining
  2. The pseudorabies virus is useful
  3. Light microscope images are to electron microscope images as
  4. Which of the following procedures can be used to activateneurons?
  5. Which of the following techniques would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region to other brain regions?
  6. A key advantage of the microdialysis technique is that
  7. Which of the following techniques creates a brain lesion by overstimulating neurons to death?
  8. The ________ technique uses X-rays to generate an image of the living human brain.
  9. Imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio-frequency lesion was used to damage the lateral hypothalamus of a rat, which suggested that cells within this region initiate feeding. If a subsequent study failed to observe a change in feeding after injection of kainic acid into the lateral hypothalamus, what conclusion would be appropriate?
  10. EEG recordings are useful for
  11. The three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas describe
  12. Which of the following is true of the interaction of magnetic fields and brain function?
  13. A(n)_____ refers to one of several forms of a gene.
  14. Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area would be expected to
  15. The primary symptom of REM-sleep behavior disorder is(are)
  16. The “ticking” of a clock cell within the SCN appears to involve
  17. A common treatment for sleep apnea is
  18. According to Saper, mutual inhibition of the vlPOA by cells of the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei may result in
  19. The ________ contains the primary biological clock that controls sleep-wake cycles in the rat.
  20. The REM-OFF cells receive excitatory input from
  21. The ________ pattern of EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high-frequency (13-30 Hz), low-amplitude waves.
  22. About ________ of the population experience insomnia as a persistent problem while ________ experience insomnia on an occasion.
  23. Signs of cortical arousal in the EEG are reduced by
  24. The suprachiasmatic nucleus controls circadian rhythms via
  25. Beta brain wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because
  26. Infusion of the transmitter substance ______ induces wakefulness.
  27. Which of the following is true of the sex chromosomes?
  28. Twin studies indicate that
  29. Female sexual behavior is suppressed by
  30. The correct sequence of neural pathways that control the muscles responsible for lordosis in female rats is
  31. The principle that best describes an organizational effect of androgens that enables an animal to engage in male sexual behavior during adulthood is
  32. Which statement best describes the Bruce effect?
  33. Lordosis is considered to be a
  34. A human female is more likely to initiate sexual activity with her partner
  35. Menstruation is triggered by
  36. An androgen that promotes the prenatal development of the Wolffian system is said to have a(n)
  37. A female rat is ovariectomized and then injected with testosterone immediately after birth. In adulthood, this rat is injected with testosterone and placed in a cage with a receptive female rat. This female rat will
  38. Drugs that act as ______ can impair ______ in males.
  39. Which of the following is a factor that can blunt the reduced sex drive observed in males who have experienced reduced plasma testosterone levels?
  40. The key difference that distinguishes the menstrual cycle from an estrous cycle is that
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