Water, oxygen, and ____ freely flow across a cell membrane.
Professor Nuno explained to her class that glucose is so important to the brain because
Small, charged molecules can cross the cell membrane through ____.
Which type of glia release chemicals that modify the activity of neighboring neurons?
The major disadvantage of a blood-brain barrier is that ____.
Pok is in the lab and is measuring the resting potential of neurons. Approximately what should she measure as the resting potential?
Professor Durrant explained to his students that the resting potential of a neuron is the ______.
Ordinarily, stimulation of a neuron takes place ____.
The two basic kinds of cells in the nervous system are _____.
Which action would depolarize a neuron?
Terrance went to the dentist and was given some Novocain. This prevented him from feeling pain because the drug ____.
What causes potassium ions to leave the axon just after the peak of the action potential?
As compared to dendrites, axons usually ____.
Ionotropic effects are characterized by ____.
Herb is watching a documentary on Dr. Loewi. He learned that neuroscientists first understood that synapses use chemicals to communicate because Dr. Loewi _____.
The anterior pituitary is composed of ____ and the posterior pituitary is composed of ____.
Temporal summation is to ____ as spatial summation is to ____.
What is the primary difference between temporal summation and spatial summation?
In addition to influencing other neurons, ____ increases blood flow to a specific area of the brain.
What is the synaptic cleft?
What is the function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase?
Professor Russom is giving a talk about neurotransmitters. She tells the class that most neurotransmitters are synthesized from _____.
What provides the building blocks for synthesizing nearly all neurotransmitters?
Karissa is in the lab working and was able to produce a reflexive response by stimulating several different locations all at one time. She successfully demonstrated ______ summation.
After one frog’s heart has been stimulated, an extract of fluid from that heart can make a second frog’s heart beat faster. What conclusion did Otto Loewi draw from these results?
Professor Leclair is giving a lecture on autoreceptors. She tells the class that _____.
What is the primary target area in the cortex for information regarding muscle-stretch and joint receptors?
Danica is studying for a quiz. She writes in her notes that the _____ matter is in the center of the spinal cord and is made up of _____.
If you could selectively damage the individual laminae of the cortex, damage to which layer would most likely affect visual sensation?
Desirae touched a plate and it was hot. Which part of her nervous system conveyed this sensory information?
A stereotaxic instrument would most likely be used for ____.
In addition to problems with balance and coordination, a person with damage to the cerebellum will likely have problems with ____.
Which method is dependent upon injecting a radioactive chemical into the blood to measure blood flow?
What causes hydrocephalus?
Which structure is likely to be damaged in Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and other conditions that impair movement?
A function of the cerebrospinal fluid is to ____.
Shasta abuses opiate drugs. Because receptors for the opiate drugs are found in the _____, one serious side effect of an overdose would be Shasta having suppressed breathing and heart rate.
An individual has difficulty remembering certain things after brain damage, but all memories stored before the damage are intact. The brain area most likely damaged is the ____.
The prefrontal cortex is important for ____.
Professor Godines is lecturing about the medulla, pons, the midbrain, and certain central structures of the forebrain. His lecture is about the _____.
Which of the following would be expected of a person who has undergone the “split-brain” procedure?
According to René Descartes,
Which of the following functions is associated with the right hemisphere?
Electrical stimulation of the ________ in dogs was shown by Fritsch and Hitzig in 1870 to result in ________.
Which of the following is true of the right hemisphere?
are physicians trained to diagnose and to treat diseases of the central nervous system.
A person has undergone the “split-brain” procedure to treat a clinical disorder. After her left nostril is plugged with cotton, the scent of a flower is directed to her right nostril. We would expect this odor to
Carlson argues that a key aspect of human consciousness is related to
Which of the following philosophers/scientists attributed thought and emotion to the brain?
Which of the following is correct?
The specialized pores located in the axon membrane that open or close are termed
Match the correct function with the appropriate neuronal organelle.
Which of the following is true of the blood-brain barrier?
In a resting nerve cell, which of the forces listed below will act to push sodium ions into the cell?
Neurotransmitter molecules are secreted from a(n) ________ in response to the arrival of an action potential.
The simplest version of a withdrawal reflex involves a
The presence of a barrier between the blood stream and the brain is suggested by the observation that
are substances that form charged particles when dissolved in water.
Which of the following is a consequence of the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters?
are positively charged particles.
fibers “bear away from the brain.”
Which of the following most accurately describes the general functions performed by the left and right hemispheres?
Which term means “above” when referring to the brain?
The association regions of the left and right hemispheres are interconnected via the axons of the
An example of a serial analytic process would be
A key function of the autonomic nervous system involves control of
In the peripheral nervous system, the ________ and the ________ fuse together to form a single sheath that protects the spinal and cranial nerves and the autonomic ganglia.
Motor association cortex is located
A key function of the pons involves
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or that cause the release of serotonin are used therapeutically to treat
A brain region that is anterior and dorsal to the thalamus could also be described as ________ and ________ to the thalamus
Withdrawal from ________ can result in seizures due to the loss of inhibitory action on ________ receptors.
Direct agonist is to direct antagonist as
refers to an increased behavioral effect of a drug with repeated administration.
Which of the following is characteristic of cannabinoid receptors?
Botox injections smooth the skin of the face by
Which of the following is true of GABA?
Which pair of drugs below are known to facilitate and inhibit (respectively) the release of ACh?
Which neurotransmitter acts to facilitate learning
refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior.