PSYC 380 Exam 1

PSYC 380 Exam 1 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. A drug that blocks the sodium gates of a neuron’s membrane will ____.
  2. Terrance went to the dentist and was given some Novocain. This prevented him from feeling pain because the drug ____.
  3. Andrew was exposed to the chicken pox virus as a child. What happened to that virus after it crossed the blood-brain barrier and entered Andrew’s brain?
  4. The resting potential is mainly the result of ____.
  5. Pautz studies the immune system and has recently become interested in the glial cells that function similar to other cells in the immune system. What cells has Dr. Pautz started exploring?
  6. What type of glial cells myelinate axons in the brain and spinal cord?
  7. Water, oxygen, and ____ freely flow across a cell membrane.
  8. When a neuron’s membrane is at rest, the concentration gradient tends to move potassium ____ the cell and the electrical gradient tends to move it ____ the cell.
  9. If all of a neuron’s dendrites or axons were contained within the spinal cord, it would be considered a(n) ____ neuron.
  10. Ribosomes are the part of a cell that ____.
  11. Small, charged molecules can cross the cell membrane through ____.
  12. Professor Durrant explained to his students that the resting potential of a neuron is the ______.
  13. Korsakoff’s syndrome ____.
  14. An IPSP represents ____.
  15. On the basis of what evidence were the properties of synapses first inferred?
  16. An action potential causes the release of neurotransmitters by ____.
  17. Why is the speed of conduction through a reflex arc slower than the speed of conduction of an action potential along an axon?
  18. Benzing is working in the lab. He has been able to demonstrate that ______ increases the frequency of the spontaneous firing rate.
  19. What is the synaptic cleft?
  20. Which category of chemicals includes adenosine and several of its derivatives?
  21. Temporal summation is to ____ as spatial summation is to ____.
  22. Most of the brain’s excitatory ionotropic synapses release ____ while the inhibitory ionotropic synapses release ____.
  23. In general, a single neuron releases ____ neurotransmitter(s) and can respond to ____ neurotransmitter(s).
  24. Brock is working in the lab and has been able to demonstrate that ______.
  25. Andrus studies reflexes and has demonstrated that a certain reflex doesn’t occur if there is a single stimulus. He found that there needs to be _______ (several, rapidly produced stimuli) for the reflex to occur.
  26. Raylene is studying for an exam on neurotransmission. She wrote in her notes that one difference between ionotropic and metabotropic effects is that _____.
  27. Sympathetic is to ____ as parasympathetic is to ____.
  28. Evoked potentials in the brain are most likely to be detected by a(n) ____.
  29. Which of the following is not part of the hindbrain?
  30. What do the corpus callosum and anterior commissure have in common?
  31. Darren is studying for a quiz. He writes in his notes that his parietal lobe is important for his sense of _____.
  32. Wellman is using an electroencephalograph on one of her patients to measure _____.
  33. The large-scale integration problem is the difficulty of ____.
  34. Sheldon is studying for a quiz. He writes in his notes that humans have _____ pairs of cranial nerves.
  35. A stereotaxic instrument would most likely be used for ____.
  36. How does the method of transcranial magnetic stimulation of brain areas differ from magnetic inactivation?
  37. Merrilee’s right hand and left foot are on _____ sides of her body.
  38. The ____ monitors all the information about eye, head, and body positions and passes it on to brain areas that control movement.
  39. Although the primary visual cortex is in the ____ lobe, the ____ lobe helps process information about movement and the recognition of faces.
  40. Sophia is not feeling well and has been coughing and sneezing all day. These actions are controlled by her _____.

Set 2

  1. Water, oxygen, and ____ freely flow across a cell membrane.
  2. Professor Nuno explained to her class that glucose is so important to the brain because
  3. Small, charged molecules can cross the cell membrane through ____.
  4. Which type of glia release chemicals that modify the activity of neighboring neurons?
  5. The major disadvantage of a blood-brain barrier is that ____.
  6. Pok is in the lab and is measuring the resting potential of neurons. Approximately what should she measure as the resting potential?
  7. Professor Durrant explained to his students that the resting potential of a neuron is the ______.
  8. Ordinarily, stimulation of a neuron takes place ____.
  9. The two basic kinds of cells in the nervous system are _____.
  10. Which action would depolarize a neuron?
  11. Terrance went to the dentist and was given some Novocain. This prevented him from feeling pain because the drug ____.
  12. What causes potassium ions to leave the axon just after the peak of the action potential?
  13. As compared to dendrites, axons usually ____.
  14. Ionotropic effects are characterized by ____.
  15. Herb is watching a documentary on Dr. Loewi. He learned that neuroscientists first understood that synapses use chemicals to communicate because Dr. Loewi _____.
  16. The anterior pituitary is composed of ____ and the posterior pituitary is composed of ____.
  17. Temporal summation is to ____ as spatial summation is to ____.
  18. What is the primary difference between temporal summation and spatial summation?
  19. In addition to influencing other neurons, ____ increases blood flow to a specific area of the brain.
  20. What is the synaptic cleft?
  21. What is the function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase?
  22. Professor Russom is giving a talk about neurotransmitters. She tells the class that most neurotransmitters are synthesized from _____.
  23. What provides the building blocks for synthesizing nearly all neurotransmitters?
  24. Karissa is in the lab working and was able to produce a reflexive response by stimulating several different locations all at one time. She successfully demonstrated ______ summation.
  25. After one frog’s heart has been stimulated, an extract of fluid from that heart can make a second frog’s heart beat faster. What conclusion did Otto Loewi draw from these results?
  26. Professor Leclair is giving a lecture on autoreceptors. She tells the class that _____.
  27. What is the primary target area in the cortex for information regarding muscle-stretch and joint receptors?
  28. Danica is studying for a quiz. She writes in her notes that the _____ matter is in the center of the spinal cord and is made up of _____.
  29. If you could selectively damage the individual laminae of the cortex, damage to which layer would most likely affect visual sensation?
  30. Desirae touched a plate and it was hot. Which part of her nervous system conveyed this sensory information?
  31. A stereotaxic instrument would most likely be used for ____.
  32. In addition to problems with balance and coordination, a person with damage to the cerebellum will likely have problems with ____.
  33. Which method is dependent upon injecting a radioactive chemical into the blood to measure blood flow?
  34. What causes hydrocephalus?
  35. Which structure is likely to be damaged in Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and other conditions that impair movement?
  36. A function of the cerebrospinal fluid is to ____.
  37. Shasta abuses opiate drugs. Because receptors for the opiate drugs are found in the _____, one serious side effect of an overdose would be Shasta having suppressed breathing and heart rate.
  38. An individual has difficulty remembering certain things after brain damage, but all memories stored before the damage are intact. The brain area most likely damaged is the ____.
  39. The prefrontal cortex is important for ____.
  40. Professor Godines is lecturing about the medulla, pons, the midbrain, and certain central structures of the forebrain. His lecture is about the _____.

Set 3

  1. Which of the following would be expected of a person who has undergone the “split-brain” procedure?
  2. According to René Descartes,
  3. Which of the following functions is associated with the right hemisphere?
  4. Electrical stimulation of the ________ in dogs was shown by Fritsch and Hitzig in 1870 to result in ________.
  5. Which of the following is true of the right hemisphere?
  6. are physicians trained to diagnose and to treat diseases of the central nervous system.
  7. A person has undergone the “split-brain” procedure to treat a clinical disorder. After her left nostril is plugged with cotton, the scent of a flower is directed to her right nostril. We would expect this odor to
  8. Carlson argues that a key aspect of human consciousness is related to
  9. Which of the following philosophers/scientists attributed thought and emotion to the brain?
  10. Which of the following is correct?
  11. The specialized pores located in the axon membrane that open or close are termed
  12. Match the correct function with the appropriate neuronal organelle.
  13. Which of the following is true of the blood-brain barrier?
  14. In a resting nerve cell, which of the forces listed below will act to push sodium ions into the cell?
  15. Neurotransmitter molecules are secreted from a(n) ________ in response to the arrival of an action potential.
  16. The simplest version of a withdrawal reflex involves a
  17. The presence of a barrier between the blood stream and the brain is suggested by the observation that
  18. are substances that form charged particles when dissolved in water.
  19. Which of the following is a consequence of the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters?
  20. are positively charged particles.
  21. fibers “bear away from the brain.”
  22. Which of the following most accurately describes the general functions performed by the left and right hemispheres?
  23. Which term means “above” when referring to the brain?
  24. The association regions of the left and right hemispheres are interconnected via the axons of the
  25. An example of a serial analytic process would be
  26. A key function of the autonomic nervous system involves control of
  27. In the peripheral nervous system, the ________ and the ________ fuse together to form a single sheath that protects the spinal and cranial nerves and the autonomic ganglia.
  28. Motor association cortex is located
  29. A key function of the pons involves
  30. Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or that cause the release of serotonin are used therapeutically to treat
  31. A brain region that is anterior and dorsal to the thalamus could also be described as ________ and ________ to the thalamus
  32. Withdrawal from ________ can result in seizures due to the loss of inhibitory action on ________ receptors.
  33. Direct agonist is to direct antagonist as
  34. refers to an increased behavioral effect of a drug with repeated administration.
  35. Which of the following is characteristic of cannabinoid receptors?
  36. Botox injections smooth the skin of the face by
  37. Which of the following is true of GABA?
  38. Which pair of drugs below are known to facilitate and inhibit (respectively) the release of ACh?
  39. Which neurotransmitter acts to facilitate learning
  40. refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior.
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