PSYC 320 Exam 2

PSYC 320 Exam 2 Liberty University Answers

Set 1

  1. In comparison to a behavior that has been continuously reinforced, a behavior that has been intermittently reinforced will _____________ when reinforcement is stopped​
  2. Extinction of a positively reinforced behavior involves removal of the _________ following the behavior:​
  3. If reinforcement for the behavior occurs during the process of extinction, the behavior will:​
  4. A behavior that has been previously reinforced no longer results in reinforcing consequences and, as a result, stops occurring in the future.  This process is referred to as:​
  5. Bobby’s parents used extinction to get him to stop crying when he had to eat vegetables, by making him eat vegetables despite his crying.  One night Bobby has a babysitter, and she does not make him eat his vegetables when he starts crying.  As a result, Bobby’s behavior of crying when told to eat vegetables:​
  6. In comparison with a behavior that has been intermittently reinforced, a behavior that has been continuously reinforced will ____________ when reinforcement is stopped.​
  7. Which of the following factors influence the extinction process?​
  8. Extinction will be least effective when:​
  9. Time-out from positive reinforcement and response cost both:​
  10. Whenever Tommy hits his little brother, he loses his television privileges.  Tommy never loses his television privileges for any other behavior.  This is an example of a(an)   ____________ existing between hitting his little brother and losing his television privileges.​
  11. Andrew was removed from class because he swore at his teacher. As a result of being removed from class activities, Andrew continues to swear at his teacher.  This is an example of:​
  12. If a stimulus needs to be paired with an established punisher in order to function as a punisher it is referred to as a(n):​
  13. Andrew was removed from class because he swore at his teacher. As a result of being removed from class activities, Andrew never swears at his teacher again.  This is an example of:​
  14. Nicole is caught lying to her parents and loses her driving privileges. As a result, Nicole no longer lies to her parents.  This is an example of:​
  15. ​ Bill spits on an umpire during a baseball game and is suspended for ten games. As a result of being suspended, Bill never spits on an umpire again.  Being suspended for his behavior of spitting is referred to as a:
  16. Zach comes home past his curfew and is yelled at by his parents.  If, as a result of being yelled at, Zach Whenever Tommy has a babysitter and asks to stay up past his bedtime, the babysitter lets him. Whenever Tommy asks his parents to let him stay up past his bedtime, they do not let him.  As a result, Tommy only asks the babysitter if he can stay up past his bedtime.  The presence of the parents at bed time is referred to as a(n) __________   for asking to stay up late:​
  17. In behavior modification, when a certain behavior occurs in the presence of stimuli that are similar to the discriminative stimulus during stimulus discrimination training, ____________ has occurred.​
  18. _____________ develops as a result of stimulus discrimination training.​
  19. When you tell jokes and your friends laugh, you are more likely to tell jokes to your friends.  Your friends are _______ for telling jokes.​
  20. When Mary asks her Mom to take her to the shopping mall, her Mom usually takes her. Whenever Mary asks her Dad to take her to the mall he refuses.  As a result, Mary only asks her Mom to take her to the mall.  The process that has resulted in Mary only asking her Mom to take her to the mall is called:​
  21. Bill drives faster than the speed limit only when his friends are in the car with him because they tell him he is cool. He doesn’t speed when his parents or girlfriend are in the car because they don’t say it’s cool. What is the SDin this example?​
  22. When the family dog licks the faces of the children in the family, they laugh and give the dog a treat. When the dog licks the faces of the parents, they scold the dog.  As a result, the dog no longer licks the faces of the parents, but continues to lick the faces of the children.  The children’s faces would be an example of a(n) ________ for the dog licking their faces:​
  23. never comes home late again it would be an example of ____________.​
  24. When Mark swears around his friends they laugh, but when he swears around his parents they ground him.  As a result, Mark is less likely to swear when his parents are around.  Mark’s behavior of not swearing around his parents is a result of:​
  25. The ____________ pairing of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus has the single strongest effect on respondent conditioning.​
  26. In which temporal relationship between the unconditioned stimulus and the neutral stimulus is the unconditioned stimulus presented after the neutral stimulus ends?​
  27. Another name for respondent conditioning is​
  28. In order for respondent conditioning to be most effective, the neutral stimulus should occur ____________ the unconditioned stimulus occurs.​
  29. Following extinction, a conditioned stimulus is presented and the conditioned response occurs.  This process is referred to as:​
  30. What will happen if the CS is presented many times in the absence of the US?​
  31. Which type(s) of respondent conditioning is(are) generally most effective?​
  32. Which of the following is NOT an example of an unconditioned response?​
  33. The extinction burst is valuable in shaping because​
  34. In shaping language in a young child, what is typically the starting behavior?​
  35. In _______________ successive approximations of the target behavior are differentially reinforced until the individual engages in the target behavior.​
  36. Which of the following behaviors cannot be developed through shaping?​
  37. Which of the following is (are) involved in the process of learning language?​
  38. ______________ reinforcers are used during shaping because they enable rapid delivery of the reinforcer and prevent satiation from occurring.​
  39. Shaping would NOT be an appropriate procedure to use when​
  40. Which of the following indicates it is time to move from one shaping step to the next?​

Set 2

  1. In comparison to a behavior that has been continuously reinforced, a behavior that has been intermittently reinforced will _____________ when reinforcement is stopped
  2. When a behavior occurs again after it had not occurred for some time due to extinction, the process is called
  3. Which of the following processes weakens operant behavior?
  4. Timmy takes out the garbage and his mother praises him when he does it. When his mother stops praising him, Timmy stops taking out the garbage. Timmy’s behavior of taking out the garbage has been:
  5. When the behavior occurs, the aversive stimulus is no longer removed. This is a definition of extinction of:
  6. Which of the following factors does NOT influence the extinction process?
  7. During an extinction burst, the unreinforced behavior can increase in:
  8. Robert dances in the end zone whenever he scores a touchdown, because the fans give him a standing ovation for doing so. When the fans no longer give him a standing ovation for his dancing, Robert stops dancing in the end zone. This is an example of:
  9. Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?
  10. Individual differences in the effectiveness of punishment refers to the fact that:
  11. The removal of a stimulus following the behavior that influences the future probability of the behavior is a process that is either
  12. In behavior modification, negative punishment involves removal of a reinforcer that:
  13. A consequence can be considered a punisher if the:
  14. Extreme cold and extreme levels of auditory stimulation are examples of:
  15. Andrew was removed from class because he swore at his teacher. As a result of being removed from class activities, Andrew continues to swear at his teacher. This is an example of:
  16. The difference between punishment and reinforcement is that in punishment:
  17. Generalization is associated with ____________ stimulus control.
  18. Bill drives faster than the speed limit only when his friends are in the car with him because they tell him he is cool. He doesn’t speed when his parents or girlfriend are in the car because they don’t say it’s cool. What is the S-delta in this example?
  19. A group of stimuli having the same functional effect on a certain behavior are said to belong to a stimulus:
  20. Which of the following is developed through discrimination training?
  21. In behavior modification, the stimulus that is present when a behavior occurs is referred to as a(n):
  22. Which of the following shows the correct sequence in a three-term contingency?
  23. When Mary asks her Mom to take her to the shopping mall, her Mom usually takes her. Whenever Mary asks her Dad to take her to the mall he refuses. As a result, Mary only asks her Mom to take her to the mall. The process that has resulted in Mary only asking her Mom to take her to the mall is called:
  24. Whenever Tommy has a babysitter and asks to stay up past his bedtime, the babysitter lets him. Whenever Tommy asks his parents to let him stay up past his bedtime, they do not let him. As a result, Tommy only asks the babysitter if he can stay up past his bedtime. The presence of the babysitter at bed time is referred to as a(n) __________ for asking to stay up late:
  25. When the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are presented at the same time it is called ____________ conditioning.
  26. The behavior that is elicited by the presence of an unconditioned or conditioned stimulus is referred to as __________ behavior.
  27. As a result of being paired with a loud noise, a flashing light has come to elicit a startle reflex. When the flashing light is repeatedly presented without the loud noise, the startle reflex eventually stops occurring. This process in which a conditioned stimulus is no longer able to elicit a conditioned response is referred to as:
  28. If the unconditioned stimulus is presented before the neutral stimulus it is referred to as ____________ conditioning.
  29. When a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus due to pairing with an already established conditioned stimulus, it is called ____________ conditioning.
  30. Which of the following is an example of a conditioned emotional response?
  31. If a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response as a result of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, ____________ conditioning has occurred.
  32. When a neutral stimulus is paired with a CS, the neutral stimulus will become a CS and elicit a CR. This process is called.
  33. When reinforcement for each approximation of the target behavior is eliminated ____________ occurs, and a ____________ behavior is then reinforced.
  34. In shaping language in a young child, what is typically the starting behavior?
  35. Differential reinforcement of each successive approximation involves:
  36. Which of the following is(are) involved in the process of learning language?
  37. Sara wants to teach her cat Fluffy to use his paw to turn on the television. Sara differentially reinforces Fluffy’s behavior of being within one foot of the television, being within one foot and facing the television, when Fluffy touches the television with his paw, when he touches the on button with his paw, and finally when Fluffy hits the on button with his paw. This is an example of using shaping to:
  38. The extinction burst is valuable in shaping because
  39. In which of the following instances can shaping be used?
  40. Which of the following strategies is used when a target behavior is not occurring at all?
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