PSYC 235 Exam 3

PSYC 235 Exam 3 Liberty University Answers

1. When Esther and Harold retired 10 years ago, they moved down to Arizona, away from their children. In Longino’s labeling system, their current move would be called a(an)
2. For the average American retiring today, the largest single source of retirement income is from
3. Leonard is 66 years of age and still in the labor force. Based on what you know about “retirement shunners” what would you guess his occupation to be?
4. The strongest predictor of the timing of retirement is
5. Alex is approaching his 50th birthday and works as an engineer. Based on Super’s theory, we can assume that he is in the ___________ stage.
6. Which group of older adults has the highest rate of poverty in the United States?
7. Which of the following best describes the relationship between job satisfaction and age?
8. Which of the following is TRUE?
9. Which of the following is most accurate about family influences on career choices of children?
10. Compared to 20 years ago, the elderly in the United States are economically
11. Among American parents who are either married or living together and who have at least one child under the age of 18:
12. Which of Holland’s personality types prefers physical work and solving concrete problems?
13. Research on the effects of genetics on career choice (using a score based on occupational status) showed that
14. Most of the domestic migration in the U.S. and Europe can be explained by:
15. Like other social ills, poverty in old age is not equally distributed across ethnic groups or gender. Of the following older individuals, who is more apt to live his/her Golden Years in poverty?
16. One nontraditional exit from the labor force is to retire and take a bridge job. Of the following selections, choose the one who is considered to be working a bridge job.
17. Which of the following individuals is likely to be considered nontraditional student?
18. A major criticism of Holland’s theory of occupational choice and personality is that
19. A classic study of typists between 19 and 72 years of age showed that
20. An article written by Erik Erikson would NOT emphasize development that
21. Trust, altruism, straightforwardness, and kindness are characteristics of which personality trait?
22. In Maslow’s system, love needs are to self‐actualization needs as, in Erikson’s system,
23. What does Vaillant call the stage he has added to Erikson’s model of development?
24. Juanita, a very extraverted female, just learned that her father’s cancer has spread. Weeks before, she had agreed to go with her friend to a party, but while she was there, she was very quiet and withdrawn. This short‐lived pattern of being quiet and withdrawn would be considered a
25. A person’s genetic endowment combines with environmental factors to maintain personality traits over the years of adulthood, a concept known as:
26. An adult says: “I’ve been independent from my parents for a long time now, supporting myself and my family, out there in the world being a grownup. It’s only recently that I realized that I’m still dependent on my parents in other ways—that I’m not really a grownup yet.” What stage or level does such thinking reflect in Loevinger’s model?
27. Aaron wonders where he should serve in his local church. According to Bugbee, this is a question of
28. Which of the following are distinctly human, according to Maslow’s theories concerning positive well‐being?
29. Ryan and Deci, the psychologists who formulated self‐determination theory, stress how important it is for individuals to experience:
30. Tyrone has a low self‐esteem. When his friends asked him to do something together or go someplace, he responds by saying that they are probably only asking to be polite or because they feel bad for him. These comments make his friends uncomfortable and eventually, they stop making an effort to get together. Tyrone is now sure that he is not a person anyone would want to have as a friend Which type of transaction does this illustrate?
31. If an adult said, “What I learned at home and in my church is what I live by. The approval of my friends and the stability of my family matter the most to me,” this adult is most likely functioning at which level or stage in Loevinger’s model of ego development?
32. An adult is preoccupied with a need to “make his mark” on the world. Which of Erikson’s dilemmas (stages) is this adult grappling with?
33. Research on Gutmann’s theory of gender crossover is best captured by the statement that
34. In which of Erikson’s stages is fidelity the potential strength to be gained?
35. Which of the following is NOT a trait found to be stable by Costa and McCrae?
36. In Maslow’s theory of motives, which group of motives are said to be found in all animals?
37. In older adults, ________ is related to higher levels of ego development.
38. “I have recently found myself very much interested in the beliefs of others and have been reading about Eastern religions. My reading has not changed my own basic beliefs, but I find it fascinating and very broadening.” What level of faith in Fowler’s system is reflected in this statement?
39. “I grew up in the Baptist church, but when I went off to college, I really had to question all the ideas I’d been given as a child and as a teenager. For a while I called myself an atheist. But now I find myself drawn back to the Baptists. It just seems to me that the church offers answers to questions I’ve been asking myself.” Which of Fowler’s stages of faith does this statement most reflect?
40. In Fowler’s system of faith development, which of the following stages is the final stage, if one can reach it, the optimal form of faith in old age, when issues of integrity and meaning become still more dominant ?
41. Miguel, who is 22 years old, thinks that breaking the law is always wrong, even if it is done in the name of civil disobedience—such as to try to change a law that discriminates against Hispanics. In Kohlberg’s category system, Miguel is reasoning at the
42. “I grew up in the Baptist church, and I’m still a Baptist. My ideas have really not changed at all. I find comfort by going to church; I find comfort in the Bible. It all seems pretty clear to me.” Which of Fowler’s stages of faith does this statement most reflect?
43. “There are several ways to practice the Eucharist (communion). I view the practice as a sacrament, but I understand that there might be other acceptable approaches.” Which of Fowler’s stages of faith does this statement reflect?
44. The process of self‐transcendence is best described as:
45. Which level or levels of moral reasoning are most commonly found among adults in their 20s and 30s?
46. Most cultures support the tradition that spirituality and wisdom increase with age. Which of the following terms defines the concept that meaning systems increase in quality as we age?
47. According to Fowler’s stages of faith development, what stage is, most typically, in its ascendance in adolescence or early adulthood?
48. When it comes to religious beliefs and private religious activities such as engaging in prayers, meditating, or reading sacred texts, cross‐sectional studies show that those in which of the following age groups would be likely to participate the most?
49. Which step in Underhill’s description of mysticism corresponds to the usual endpoint in Fowler’s theory?
50. Which of the following has been used as an argument against Kohlberg’s theory of the development of moral reasoning?
51. Which of Fowler’s stages of faith is most parallel to the level of belongingness and love needs in Maslow’s theory?
52. According to the Gurin and Brim model, which of the following life experiences would be most likely to lead to significant change in adults’ meaning systems?
53. Which particular life experience has been most often associated with reports of transitions from “conformist” to “individualistic” stages of faith or moral reasoning?
54. What stage in Kohlberg’s system of moral development, characterized by a unity orientation, appears to correspond most closely to what Maslow calls “peak experiences”?
55. “Generally you should obey the law, because that is one of the conditions for living in society. But if a law is immoral, you may need to disobey it—but be prepared to take the consequences.” What level of moral reasoning in Kohlberg’s system is reflected in this statement?
56. A major criticism of Holland’s theory of occupational choice and personality is that
57. Critics of Holland’s theory argue that those adults who find a job that matches their vocational interests
58. The strongest predictor of the timing of retirement is
59. Life‐span theory is divided into 5 distinct career stages, each with developmental tasks. Which stage is NOT matched correctly with the appropriate developmental task?
60. Most of the domestic migration in the U.S. and Europe can be explained by:
61. The life‐span/life‐space theory is based upon which of the following concepts?
62. For the average American retiring today, the largest single source of retirement income is from
63. Sharleen is experiencing job stress and burn out. She most likely
64. Alex is approaching his 50th birthday and works as an engineer. Based on Super’s theory, we can assume that he is in the ___________ stage.
65. Which of the following is NOT among the 6 personality types studied by Holland in his research on personality and occupational choices?
66. Which pattern of work and non‐work is associated with greatest work success or highest income among women?
67. In comparison to men, women’s work histories are
68. Which of the following best describes the relationship between job satisfaction and age?
69. Al has incoming coming in every month from rental property he has owned for the last two decades. This source of income would be referred to as:
70. We tend to think of ___ as “retirement age” because that is the age at which people in the United States are able to start receiving full Social Security benefits. However, many people retire earlier, and many keep working past that age.
71. Compared to 20 years ago, the elderly in the United States are economically
72. A classic study of typists between 19 and 72 years of age showed that
73. Leonard is 66 years of age and still in the labor force. Based on what you know about “retirement shunners” what would you guess his occupation to be?
74. On which of Holland’s personality dimensions is a minister likely to score the highest?
75. In Maslow’s system, love needs are to self‐actualization needs as, in Erikson’s system,
76. In which of Erikson’s stages is fidelity the potential strength to be gained?
77. Which of the following stages in Erikson’s theory does NOT typically occur in adulthood?
78. In her first year of college Deneisha was struggling to find herself and mistakenly thought she would find her identity by dating the first guy who showed interest in her. According to Erikson’s theory, Deneisha is likely to experience
79. Anxiety, hostility, worry, depression, and self‐consciousness are characteristics of which personality trait?
80. Maslow could be considered a:
81. Monique was a participant in Dr. Merrens’ study that required her to complete 18 sentence stems, such as “My mother and I….. and “Rules are….” She received a total score that corresponds to a particular level of ego development. Dr. Merrens’ research is based on the work of:
82. Deanna is lazy, careless, unenergetic, and aimless. She would fall on the low end of Costa & McCrae’s ________________ dimension.
83. Research on Gutmann’s theory of gender crossover is best captured by the statement that
84. Which of the following is NOT a trait found to be stable by Costa and McCrae?
85. A person’s genetic endowment combines with environmental factors to maintain personality traits over the years of adulthood, a concept known as:
86. Juanita, a very extraverted female, just learned that her father’s cancer has spread. Weeks before, she had agreed to go with her friend to a party, but while she was there, she was very quiet and withdrawn. This short‐lived pattern of being quiet and withdrawn would be considered a
87. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development states that personality development takes place in ________ that represents a conflict the individual must try to resolve.
88. An adult describes herself as “a small‐town, family girl; a good person.” What stage or level in Loevinger’s model does such a description typify?
89. Which of the following is a valid statement of a difference between Erikson’s stage theory and Loevinger’s stage theory of development?
90. Which is the highest level of development in Jane Loevinger’s theory?
91. What potential strength does Erikson associate with the stage of intimacy versus isolation?
92. Which of the following did Erikson think is more likely to occur to young adults who do not develop the ability to have meaningful relationships?
93. According to Fowler’s theory of faith development,
94. “I grew up in the Baptist church, but when I went off to college, I really had to question all the ideas I’d been given as a child and as a teenager. For a while I called myself an atheist. But now I find myself drawn back to the Baptists. It just seems to me that the church offers answers to questions I’ve been asking myself.” Which of Fowler’s stages of faith does this statement most reflect?
95. Women attend religious services at higher rates than men

96. deals more with beliefs and behaviors connected to an organized structure, while _________ deals more with emotion, motivation, and the search for meaning in life.
97. “I try to do things that I think my mom and dad will approve of. Their opinion really matters to me.” In Kohlberg’s category system, this is an example of ______ reasoning.
98. The most appropriate form of study to test Kohlberg’s theory of the development of moral reasoning is
99. According to the Gurin and Brim model, which of the following life experiences would be most likely to lead to significant change in adults’ meaning systems?
100. Teresa, who is in her early 30s, was arrested after participating in a sit‐in as part of a protest march. She says, “I know what I did is against the law; 99 percent of the time I think a person should obey the law, because otherwise we’d have chaos. But sometimes laws are wrong, and I have to disobey them in order to try to change them.” In Kohlberg’s category system, Teresa is reasoning at the
101. Which of the following is NOT one of Underhill’s stages of mystical experience?
102. Kegan proposes that development is governed by the existence of a basic polarity of motives or needs, between
103. What stage in Kohlberg’s system of moral development, characterized by a unity orientation, appears to correspond most closely to what Maslow calls “peak experiences”?
104. Which age group of adults in the United States shows the highest level of participation in formal religious activities, such as church attendance?
105. “There are lots of ways to think about God and to understand God. My own way satisfies me, but I accept the fact that there are other approaches that work for other people.” Which of Fowler’s stages of faith does this statement reflect?
106. “I have recently found myself very much interested in the beliefs of others and have been reading about Eastern religions. My reading has not changed my own basic beliefs, but I find it fascinating and very broadening.” What level of faith in Fowler’s system is reflected in this statement?
107. Which level or levels of moral reasoning are most commonly found among adults in their 20s and 30s?
108. Bjorklund noted that there is an increase in spirituality during adulthood, but the timing depends on:
109. When it comes to religious beliefs and private religious activities such as engaging in prayers, meditating, or reading sacred texts, cross‐sectional studies show that those in which of the following age groups would be likely to participate the most?
110. “I grew up in the Baptist church, and I’m still a Baptist. My ideas have really not changed at all. I find comfort by going to church; I find comfort in the Bible. It all seems pretty clear to me.” Which of Fowler’s stages of faith does this statement most reflect?

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