Globalization has not had a marked increase in the number of people moving across national borders or the overall distance traveled by the individuals that migrate.
Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death among both men and women in low- and middle-income countries.
The concept of social determinants of health is the belief that factors such as poverty, political systems, housing, and sanitation are directly linked to health and disease.
Increased cumulative exposure to risk factors over the lifecourse, combined with social and economic inequalities, leads to the levels of inequalities seen in later adult life.
Since the 1980s, health sector reform has focused on introducing market mechanisms to manage and deliver health services while rethinking—and often reducing—the role of the state. These reforms have been introduced in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, often without sufficient evidence of their effectiveness.
Some of the negative aspects of globalization include
There is generally only one type of healer that is available to a community, thus limiting the range of health resources available to its members.
Important predictors of a child’s risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections include
The demographic transition describes which of the following changes to society
The health gradient describes
Measures of health status that combine mortality and morbidity data
Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of death among infants and young children, resulting in approximately two million child deaths each year.
Under the health belief model, perceived benefits and effectiveness of the intervention has the strongest predictive value for changing behaviors.
Malaria is undoubtedly the most important parasitic disease in tropical regions of low- and middle- income countries, causing an estimated 1 to 2 million deaths each year.
Quantitative research is better for studying and understanding culture and behavior than qualitative research.
Because antibiotics proved so effective in curing infections when Western biomedicine was first introduced in many cultures, today injections are still seen as conveying greater healing than the same substance taken orally.
One of the challenges of studying the social determinants of health is understanding the causal relationship between social, economic, political, and legal factors and disease.
The impact of material and physical factors on health are mediated, in part, by political and legal factors such as regulation and the power of labor unions.
“Equity proofing” involves checking what the equity implications and consequences—both intended and, if possible, unanticipated—are likely to be of a particular policy or intervention.
The concept of cultural competence must include
Determinants of good health at the individual level are generally the same as the determinants of inequalities in patterns of health at the population level.
Indirect costs of a high burden of chronic diseases among the working age population include
The global prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase more in high-income countries than low- to middle-income countries.
Cultural relativism refers to the idea that each culture has developed its own way of solving the problems of how to live together and, therefore, there is no one way viewed as inferior or superior.
In many low- and middle-income countries, vital registries’ coverage is greater than 90% of the total population, thus making it easy to collect accurate mortality information.
The health status of a population can be considered as the amount of healthy life it achieves as a proportion of the total amount that the people could achieve under optimal conditions.
A key limitation to mortality-based indicators is that they fail to account for the morbidity caused by disease.
In the near future, the collective demand for health workers in a few high-income countries is predicted to be large enough to deplete the supply of qualified nurses throughout the developing world.
It is estimated that deaths from diet-related chronic disease in China will triple between 1995 and 2025.
Reproductive health related metrics include
Diseases carried by mosquitoes are especially sensitive to meteorological condition because they are vulnerable to changes in the ambient temperature. As a result of changing temperatures, infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue have decreased in incidence and geographic range.
Globalization is a relatively new phenomenon that began in the mid-20th century.
The relative importance or burden of a disease within a population will depend on a number of factors including
Adherence to treatment is influence by several interacting dimensions including
The disability-adjusted life year is defined as
Foreign direct investment is an investment by an enterprise from one country, usually a high-income country, into an entity or affiliate in another, either a high-income country or emerging markets in low- or middle-income countries.
Public health advocates critical of the market-driven approach of pharmaceutical companies are concerned about the companies
When health programs fail to recognize and work with indigenous beliefs and practices, they also fail to reach their goals.
Emerging evidence supports starting promotion efforts during pregnancy and early childhood and continuing efforts throughout life lower exposures to major chronic disease risk factors.
A major challenge to developing a burden of disease profile in low and middle-income countries relates to
The patterning of health and illness at the population level is not merely the aggregation of health and illness at the individual level, but rather a social fact in its own right that requires a social-level explanation.
The most widely accepted stage model of behavior change is
The ability to diagnose and classify specific diseases aids in determining which health intervention programs would be most useful.
The greatest obstacle to reducing the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease in low- and middle-income countries is the difficulty and expense of ensuring access to clean, safe drinking water, and adequate sanitation.
The most effective way to treat meningitis is through a reactive approach, once an epidemic is detected, a vaccination campaign should be implemented as rapidly as possible.
The “compression of morbidity” model proposes that morbidity due to aging cannot be postponed or mitigated by disease prevention programs.
International cooperation of infectious disease control has a long history that includes obligatory reporting of outbreaks of specific diseases. However, compliance with obligatory reporting was poor due to economic consequences that often accompanied notification of disease outbreaks.
To combat chronic diseases, modern, evidence-based interventions emphasize shared decision making and collaborative goal setting among providers and patients.
There are few significant funding sources for chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries.