The experience of many countries shows that the onset of fertility decline is generally dependent on a particular threshold in socioeconomic factors such as levels of urbanization, female education, or infant mortality.
Allocative efficiency means that devoting resources to that mix of activities that will have the greatest effect on health, also called being cost-effective.
Research has shown that the process of demographic transition is quite varied and does not occur consistently across countries.
By 2025, the majority of the world’s population is expected to reside in urban areas of low- or middle-income countries. Such urbanization affects which of the following?
Undernutrition and overnutrition often coexist within the same population group and even within the same family.
In general, low- and middle-income populations are the most vulnerable to the health impacts of environmental degradation and change.
New NGOs are sometimes established in response to specific conflicts. These organizations may be short-lived due to their inexperience and inability to cope with the challenges they face in providing services in complex political environments.
Generally speaking, out-of-pocket payment is the most regressive modality of financing health care.
There is no evidence of long-lasting benefits of maternal single- and combined-micronutrient supplementation on child health and survival outcomes beyond the neonatal period.
As WHO membership grew and became more inclusive, maintaining a consensual policy environment grew increasingly challenging as ideological differences in health delivery and promotion emerged.
Some of the key objectives of health-sector reform include
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), either acute or chronic, is considered the dominant cause of undernutrition.
Global cooperation on health occurs, in part, to help states address risks that they could not adequately manage within their national borders including
The consequences of unintended pregnancies and births include
Most resources for health systems are generated domestically, although governments may also receive significant aid from multilateral, bilateral, or NGO sources.
Classifying and comparing health systems is not challenging as most countries fit neatly into one type of category.
Environment-related indicators for the monitoring of progress toward the U.N. Millennium Development Goals include
The rationale for support of family planning programs includes
Iron deficiency is considered the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world.
By the end of the 20th century, low- and middle-income countries were increasingly encouraged to turn to the state (public health sector) to provide health services for their populations.
One example of consensus building in international health is the considerable change in perspective on population growth and family planning that occurred between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s.
As a political disturbance or conflict evolves in a country, food scarcity can occur as
Financing agents, or those responsible for collecting revenue to pay for health services, may be publicly or privately owned and may offer services directly to patients or purchase services through providers.
Accurately using a highly effective contraceptive method practically eliminates the chance of an unintended pregnancy during the reproductive span.
Descriptive studies are limited in their ability to yield definite conclusions about etiology due to
Several challenges with providing ongoing humanitarian support include understanding
The ability to accurately assess the conflict-associated costs in terms of morbidity, mortality, and disability is impacted by
The Declaration of Alma Ata in 1978 emphasized health delivery in the hospital setting with a focus on secondary and tertiary prevention.
Regulation in low-income countries can have extra challenges such as a lack of basic information about providers and facilities, thus making it difficult to require any regular provision of information.
One of the main justifications for the state’s role in the design of health systems lies in explanations of market failure, related to
Historically, the degree of state involvement in the provision of health services varied enormously between countries, a source of disparities that persists even today.
Since the 1950s national family planning programs in low- and middle-income countries have significantly increased the prevalence of contraceptive use and have played an important role in the reduction of fertility. Program success has depended on a number of factors including
The pluralism of activity and partnership of health actors has raised the status of health on the world’s policy agenda but has also heightened concerns about a number of potential problems including
The traditional rationale for the role of government regulation of health care is for the state to limit health care spending.
The environmental risk transition describes the tendency for environmental risks to shift during the economic development process, from the global and regional scale to the household community.
Despite differences in legal access, there is little difference in the likelihood of having an abortion in Africa and Europe; however, the abortion mortality rate is significantly higher in regions where abortion is illegal.
Undernutrition and infectious diseases in low-income countries can lead to higher case fatality rates in children when experienced separately than when the two conditions are co-occurring.
The nutrition transition is a process marked by a shift away from more processed, refined foods towards a diet of more traditional, staple foods, often accompanied by seasonally available vegetables, fruits, and animal foods.
When conventional health services are interrupted, adaptations occur and new actors supplement the diminishing resources, such as
Moral hazard is defined as the purchase of insurance followed by
WHO member states are obligated to adhere to and implement policies decided at the annual World Health Assembly.
International cooperation on health began with the formation of the World Health Organization after World War II.
Research has shown that excluding men from most family planning programs affected the ability of women to take advantage of their services, because men play a dominant role in family planning decisions in many regions.
Western imperialism and colonization has had a major impact on the health services of colonized countries.
Refugees are defined as persons who flee their country of origin through a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, social class, political beliefs, or economic status.
The most important criterion for the selection of a refugee camp site is
While replacement feeding prevents transmission of HIV through human milk and is likely the best option in higher-income countries, in poor settings it can place infants at increased risk of death from other exposures and causes.
Health systems of low- and middle-income countries tend to be fragmented with different arrangements for different population groups.
It is difficult to estimate the burden of disease attributable to environmental factors in part due to limited knowledge about disease etiology and the latency period between environmental exposures and health outcomes.