CJUS 340 Test 2

Liberty CJUS 340 Test 2 Answers

Set 1

  1. According to labeling theory, the major element in determining the criminality of an individual is
  2. According to Moffitt’s theory, which of the following is not a positive outcome of the developmental process?
  3. According to containment theory, a positive self-image is an important ________ containment.
  4. The ________ a person’s social capital, the ________ the chance of criminal activity.
  5. The theory of delinquency that emphasizes self-esteem was developed by
  6. Which of the following theories is not a social process theory?
  7. The ________ type of activation involves increased continuity over time.
  8. Which of the following is not an example of a push towards crime?
  9. focuses on early childhood risk factors for gang involvement.
  10. Which of the following is not an example of desistance?
  11. Which of the following is not a criticism of differential association theory?
  12. attempts to teach positive values to juveniles through one-on-one mentoring with favorable adult role models.
  13. According to Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime, the key concept in explaining all forms of criminal behavior is
  14. An individual with a control surplus would be most likely to engage in which of the following types of deviant behavior?
  15. Which of the following is not one of the ideas contributed to the criminological literature by labeling theory?
  16. Which of the following factors would not enhance a person’s social capital?
  17. The prototype convict criminologist is
  18. The view that market societies breed high levels of violent crime was proposed by
  19. Which of the following probably would not be expected of a modern radical criminologist?
  20. According to the conflict perspective, the fundamental nature of group conflict centers on
  21. Which of the following is not a component of the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model?
  22. criminology has been criticized as being naïve and utopian
  23. justice is based on restoration rather than on punishment.
  24. Which of the following is not an achieved characteristic?
  25. Ralf Dahrendorf suggested that class conflicts arose over power and
  26. According to ________, a spokesperson for modern radical thinkers, criminal behavior results from the coercive power of the state to enforce the will of the ruling class.
  27. feminism sees men as controlling the law and women defined as subjects.
  28. According to Marx and Engels, ________ would inevitably replace capitalism.
  29. Which of the following statements is most likely to be made by a convict criminologist?
  30. Social conflict theorist Karl Marxs was born in
  31. Which of the following is not a criticism of radical-critical criminology?
  32. The central notion in social conflict is the concept of
  33. Which of the following is not a purpose of the PREA?
  34. account for the largest number of workplace violence incidents.
  35. assault may occur when a woman tries to leave a violent relationship.
  36. According to the typology of mass murder developed by Fox and Levin, the killings by the Charles Manson family were motivated by
  37. According to the four-part typology of serial killers, the ________ serial killer kills for financial or material gain.
  38. Drunk driving is an example of
  39. According to Wolfgang, the association between alcohol and victim-precipitated homicides is
  40. Male serial killers are more likely to target ________ as victims.
  41. Premeditated murder is
  42. The most common type of rape is ________ rape.
  43. Which of the following terms is not used to refer to third-degree murder?
  44. refers to the observation that some traits appear to survive because the further the attainment of mates or the defense against competition over mates.
  45. The first state to redefine “rape” to include a broader range of behaviors, circumstances, and victims was
  46. Which of the following is not an institutional robbery?
  47. According to Groth, ________ rapes involve torture.
  48. Explain the differences between first-degree murder, second-degree murder, negligent homicide, and felony murder.
  49. Becker’s typology of delinquents consists of three types of deviants. Describe each type and give an example for each.
  50. Convict criminologists espouse five observations and recommendations for the field of corrections and the justice system. What are those recommendations?

Other sets

  1. The view that market societies breed high levels of violent crime was proposed by
  2. __________ feminism sees men as controlling the law and women defined as subjects.
  3. In 1905, __________ described the struggle between the haves and the have‐nots as a natural consequence of a capitalist society.
  4. According to Chambliss and Seidman, the __________ a group’s political or economic position, the __________ the probability that it’s views will be reflected in laws.
  5. __________ criminology suggests that social control agencies and citizens should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime.
  6. Which of the following statements is most likely to be made by a convict criminologist?
  7. According to Marx and Engels, __________ would inevitably replace capitalism.
  8. The 1958 book Theoretical Criminology was written by
  9. The book, Class, State, and Crime was written by
  10. Austin Turk and many other conflict criminologists see crime as
  11. Most social scientists today identify __________ social classes.
  12. Which of the following probably would not be expected of a modern radical criminologist?
  13. According to the conflict perspective, the fundamental nature of group conflict centers on
  14. Which of the following is not a component of the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model?
  15. __________ justice is based on restoration rather than on punishment.
  16. The prototype convict criminologist is
  17. People employed in __________ occupations experience the largest number of Type 2 workplace assaults.
  18. The proportion of reported or discovered crime within a given offense category which is solved by the police is known as the __________ rate.
  19. Male serial killers are more likely to target __________ as victims
  20. According to Groth’s typology of rapists, __________ rapes involve rapists who commit rape to exert control over their victims.
  21. The most common type of rape is __________ rape.
  22. Which of the following is not a stalking behavior?
  23. Drunk driving is an example of
  24. One of the two most common reasons for not reporting violent crime is that the victim
  25. The primary theoretical perspective used to explain the fact that victims and offenders who are intimately known to each other are disproportionately represented in homicide statistics is
  26. Which of the following is a personal robbery?
  27. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is responsible for the
  28. The category of crimes in NIBRS which corresponds most closely to the UCR Part I offenses is
  29. According to the NCVS, __________ is the least likely crime to be reported to the police.
  30. A correctional officer is physically assaulted by a inmate in a prison. This is an example of which type of workplace violence?
  31. Which of the following terms is not used to refer to third‐degree murder?
  32. Premeditated murder is
  33. Retail establishments are __________ times as likely to be burglarized as other commercial establishments.
  34. Among the business fences use as a front for their criminal activity, a(n) __________ is perceived as quasi‐legitimate or marginal.
  35. Approximately __________ percent of all cleared arson cases involve juveniles.
  36. An individual who operates a secondhand store whose inventory partly matched the stolen goods he receives is a(n) __________ fence.
  37. A fence commits the crime of
  38. Which of the following is not one of the crucial defining characteristics of a professional fence, according to Darrell Steffensmeier?
  39. For __________ receivers, crime is peripheral rather than central to their lives.
  40. Juveniles are __________ in offense statistics on shoplifting.
  41. Which category of burglars is most likely to contain mainly juveniles?
  42. The Church Arson Prevention Act is designed to
  43. According to Alfred Blumstein, the __________ period is not one of the three distinct phases of a criminal career in property offending.
  44. Individuals aged __________ generally start fires either accidentally or out of curiosity.
  45. The most common commercial establishment to be targeted for burglary is a __________ establishment.
  46. Among the businesses fences use as a front for their criminal activity, a(n) __________ is perceived as strictly clean.
  47. Most employee theft of cash or merchandise is committed by
  48. The Uniform Crime Reporting Program is run by the __________.
  49. The National Crime Victimization Survey is conducted by the __________.
  50. The primary motive for most burglaries is __________.
  51. According to __________, a spokesperson for modern radical thinkers, criminal behavior results from the coercive power of the state to enforce the will of the ruling class.
  52. __________ criminology suggests that social control agencies and citizens should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime.
  53. According to Marx and Engels, __________ would inevitably replace capitalism.
  54. In 1905, __________ described the struggle between the haves and the have‐nots as a natural consequence of a capitalist society.
  55. The 1958 book Theoretical Criminology was written by
  56. Which of the following is not one of the six key elements of the conflict perspective?
  57. Ralf Dahrendorf suggested that class conflicts arose over power and
  58. According to Chambliss and Seidman, the __________ a group’s political or economic position, the __________ the probability that it’s views will be reflected in laws.
  59. __________ feminism sees men as controlling the law and women defined as subjects.
  60. The view that market societies breed high levels of violent crime was proposed by
  61. __________ criminology consists of a proactive call for change in the social conditions leading to crime, whereas __________ criminology is a way of critiquing social relationships leading to crime.
  62. Which of the following is not an achieved characteristic?
  63. The book, Class, State, and Crime was written by
  64. According to the conflict perspective, the fundamental nature of group conflict centers on
  65. __________ justice is based on restoration rather than on punishment.
  66. Which of the following criminologists has shifted orientation several times and is currently considered to be a peacemaking criminologist?
  67. According to Fox and Levin, the __________ serial killer commits murder to mask other crimes, such as robbery.
  68. __________ refers to issues surrounding how access to guns may increase their presence in all types of interactions.
  69. Drunk driving is an example of
  70. Which of the following terms is not used to refer to third‐degree murder?
  71. According to the four‐part typology of serial killers, the __________ serial killer kills for financial or material gain.
  72. According to the typology of serial killers developed by Fox and Levin, __________ serial murders include those who hear voices commanding them to kill.
  73. According to the NCVS, __________ is the least likely crime to be reported to the police.
  74. Which of the following is not a stalking behavior?
  75. A __________ is a short‐term acute trigger for a mass murder.
  76. Which of the following is not a reason why rape victims fail to report their victimization?
  77. The category of crimes in NIBRS which corresponds most closely to the UCR Part I offenses is
  78. Which of the following is not part of Russell’s typology of men who rape their wives?
  79. The majority of workplace homicides fall into the Type __________ category of workplace violence.
  80. The women who killed at the behest of Charles Manson were examples of __________ killers.
  81. According to Fox and Levin’s typology of mass murder, the most common type of mass murderer is the __________ murderer.
  82. Which of the following statements about the common law definition of rape is true?
  83. The most common target for arson is
  84. One reason why m any burglary offenders prefer this type of offending to other crimes such as robbery is that
  85. With respect to motor vehicle theft, the rate of reporting __________ with the income level of the household.
  86. Retail establishments are __________ times as likely to be burglarized as other commercial establishments.
  87. Among the businesses fences use as a front for their criminal activity, a(n) __________ is perceived as strictly clean.
  88. A(n) __________ fence is one whose illicit lines of goods are distinct from those of legitimate commerce.
  89. The most frequent type of larceny, according to the UCR, is
  90. According to routine activities theory, which of the following elements is not necessary for a criminal act to occur?
  91. Which of the following is not an economic cost that may result from burglary?
  92. Juveniles are more likely to be involved in arson in
  93. Which of the following is not one of the reasons why retail stores dominate as burglary targets?
  94. Individuals aged __________ generally start fires either accidentally or out of curiosity.
  95. The most common commercial establishment to be targeted for burglary is a __________ establishment.
  96. Changes in burglary and robbery rates in the 1980s have been linked to
  97. According to victimization data, approximately __________ percent of households will be burglarized at least once over the average lifetime.
  98. The Uniform Crime Reporting Program is run by the __________.
  99. The National Crime Victimization Survey is conducted by the __________.
  100. The primary motive for most burglaries is __________.
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