CJUS 340 Test 1

Liberty CJUS 340 Test 1 Answers

Set 1

  1. Which of the following is not considered a property crime by the UCR?
  2. According to the various professional groups, violence in television, music, video games, and movies
  3. Criminologists work for
  4. The ________ is considered by many researchers to be a more accurate measure of the actual incidence of crime in the United States.
  5. According to the NCVS, ________ crimes are most likely to be reported to the police.
  6. Which of the following crimes was not one of the original seven UCR Part I offenses?
  7. is human activity that violates social norms.
  8. Which of the following is not a reason why rape victims fail to report their victimization?
  9. According to routine activities theory, which of the following is not required for a crime to occur?
  10. The first state to pass a “three strikes” law was
  11. Which of the following was/were influenced by Beccaria’s ideas?
  12. Which of the following would a rational choice theorist be most likely to consider a likely factor in crime causation?
  13. The Seductions of Crime was written by
  14. Bentham’s approach is known as
  15. The Panopticon was envisioned by
  16. The just deserts concept is inherent is which model?
  17. Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?
  18. According to Gall, the shape of which body part can be used to predict criminality?
  19. Which of the following is not a characteristic of an XYY male?
  20. conducted a study of Lombroso’s theory and concluded that it was fundamentally unsound.
  21. The eugenics movement called for
  22. If human behavior has a substantial heritable component, which of the following results would you expect from a study of twins?
  23. The term sociobiology was coined by
  24. A large ________ study was begun in 1968 by European researchers Karl O. Christiansen and Sarnoff Mednick.
  25. In 1998, David Fergusson and colleagues, in a study of 1,022 New Zealand children who had been followed for 18 years, found “children whose mothers ________ during their pregnancy had mean rates of conduct disorder symptoms.”
  26. Terrie Moffitt, through a meta- analysis of more than 100 studies of genetic influences on anti- social behavior, was able to concluded “genes influence ________ to ________ of population variation in antisocial behavior.”
  27. Leading biosocial researcher ________ explains it this way: “In virtually every study ever conducted, males are much more likely than females to engage in violence, aggression, and serious crimes. As the seriousness of the offense/behavior increases, the gender gap also tends to increase, such that the most violent criminal acts are almost exclusively a male phenomenon.”
  28. One study of 781 men and women age 21 found a clear relationship between elevated blood levels of ________ (which correspond to lower brain levels of the chemical) and violence in men.
  29. In ________, only three years after the launch of the Human Genome Project (GP), Dutch criminologists caught worldwide attention with their claim that they had uncovered a specific gene with links to criminal behavior.
  30. Researchers have termed the neuroanatomical findings from studies like these the
  31. In 2002, Avshalom Caspi and Terrie E. Moffitt and their colleagues offered a model of gene- environment interaction, which recognized that ________ appears to be a “universal risk factor for antisocial behavior” in adulthood.
  32. selection, which is a form of natural selection which influences an individual’s ability to attain or choose a mate, derives from Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.
  33. Which of the following will not result in disengagement?
  34. Hervey Cleckley described the psychopath as a ________ or as one who does not feel empathy for others.
  35. Which of the following is not one of the three components of the personality?
  36. Which of the following is an example of a negative punishment?
  37. adaptation occurs when crime leads to stress reduction as a result of internal changes in value systems and beliefs.
  38. Another name for secondary psychopaths is
  39. Which type of self-control involves resisting temptations to eat, drink or take drugs?
  40. behavior affects the environment in such a way as to produce responses or further behavioral cues.
  41. culture conflict occurs when smaller cultures within the primary one clash.
  42. Which of the following is not a social structure theory?
  43. According to Merton, which of the following would not be a socially approved means to achieving legitimate goals?
  44. Early ecological theories of crime were collectively referred to as the ________ School of Criminology.
  45. Which of the following statements about gangs is not true?
  46. According to relative deprivation theory, ________ can be blamed for most crime.
  47. Subcultural theories have been criticized for being
  48. Describe the policy implications of modern biological theories of crime. What are the social policy implications of biological and biosocial theories of crime?
  49. Explain the difference between general deterrence and specific deterrence. Cite several reasons why deterrence does not work.
  50. Outline several arguments against the death penalty. Then outline arguments in favor of capital punishment.

Other sets

  1. A(n) __________ is made up of clearly state propositions suggesting relationships between events and occurrences being studied.
  2. People appear to be particularly fascinated by __________ crime.
  3. Criminology is
  4. A formal written enactment of a legislative body is known as a
  5. The concept of __________ refers to the view that social events are interpreted differently according to the viewer.
  6. Criminal justice emphasizes
  7. The process of __________ makes some forms of behavior illegal.
  8. Which of the following individuals probably would not be considered a criminalist?
  9. The __________ model is predicated on the belief that criminals deserve punishment because of the choices they make.
  10. According to Beccaria, punishment should be imposed to
  11. Bentham’s approach is known as
  12. Which of the following is not a critique of Classical criminology?
  13. Which of the following was not a finding of the Texas Defender Service’s study of death penalty decisions in Texas?
  14. Which of the following is not one of the basic assumptions or principles of the Classical School?
  15. Which of the following was/were influenced by Beccaria’s ideas?
  16. __________ determinism is the belief that much of human behavior results from forces outside the individual’s control.
  17. The term “positivism” came from the writings of
  18. Which of the following is not a characteristic of an XYY male?
  19. According to Lombroso, __________ were occasional criminals who were pulled into breaking the law by virtue of environmental influences.
  20. Which of Ernst Kretschmer’s mental categories was most likely to commit violent offenses?
  21. The systematic study of the biological basis of social behavior is known as
  22. Women generally commit more crimes of __________ than men.
  23. Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?
  24. Which of the following is not one of Franz Joseph Gall’s main themes?
  25. A verdict of __________ means that the defendant can be held responsible for a specific criminal act, even though a degree of mental incompetence may be present.
  26. Individuals suffering from poor __________ development are likely to seek immediate gratification without considering the long‐term consequences of their choices.
  27. Selective incapacitation is based on the concept of
  28. According to Grasmick, which of the following would be a characteristic of a person with low self‐control?
  29. The individual best known for his work on behavior theory is
  30. According to Cleckley, one characteristic of the psychopathic personality is
  31. For the purposes of the criminal law, insanity is a __________ determination.
  32. According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, self‐control is acquired
  33. Which of the following is not one of the assumptions on which most sociological perspectives of crime causation are built?
  34. According to differential opportunity theory, drug use predominates in the __________ delinquent subculture
  35. __________ are expectations for human behavior within a social group.
  36. Which of the following is not one of Miller’s focal concerns?
  37. According to Merton, which of the following would not be a socially approved means to achieving legitimate goals?
  38. According to relative deprivation theory, __________ can be blamed for most crime.
  39. Which of the following is not a type of social structure theory?
  40. Which of the following types of strain is not likely to cause crime?
  41. Which of the following is not an example of desistance?
  42. Which of the following is not one of the ideas contributed to the criminological literature by labeling theory?
  43. Differential association theory was developed by
  44. The dual taxonomic theory of criminality identifies __________ paths to criminality.
  45. According to labeling theory, the major element in determining the criminality of an individual is
  46. Social bond theory was popularized by
  47. Elder’s principle of __________ refers to the fact that the developmental impact of a succession of life transitions is contingent on when in a persons life they occur.
  48. According to Agnew, emotions such as anger, fear, and depression are known as __________.
  49. Adolescence‐limited offenders who fail to successfully make the transition to legitimate autonomy may join the ranks of __________.
  50. __________ controls crime through the imprisonment of specific individuals.
  51. Contemporary criminologists operate primary from a __________ perspective.
  52. A(n) __________ theory of crime is one that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.
  53. The number of personnel employed by private security agencies today is approximately __________ that of public law enforcement agencies.
  54. The view of crime as human conduct that violates the criminal law is drawn from a __________ perspective.
  55. Criminologists work for
  56. The __________ perspective is most applicable to homogeneous societies.
  57. Which of the following statements about deviance and crime is true?
  58. Criminology is
  59. Which of the following would a rational choice theorist be most likely to consider a likely factor in crime causation?
  60. Which of the following is not one of the basic assumptions or principles of the Classical School?
  61. The argument that crime is not a result of poverty or social conditions and therefore cannot be affected by social programs was made by
  62. The nothing works doctrine was based on the work of
  63. The variety of rational choice theory that builds on an emerging emphasis on victimization is known as
  64. The __________ model is predicated on the belief that criminals deserve punishment because of the choices they make.
  65. Which of the following is not an argument put forward by opponents of capital punishment?
  66. According to routine activities theory, which of the following is not required for a crime to occur?
  67. Which of the following was not one of C. Ray Jeffery’s elements for a comprehensive biologically based crime prevention program?
  68. The eugenics movement called for
  69. The myth of the __________ holds that the human mind has no innate traits.
  70. Which of the following statements about female criminality is not true?
  71. Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?
  72. According to Lombroso, __________ were occasional criminals who were pulled into breaking the law by virtue of environmental influences.
  73. Which of Ernst Kretschmer’s mental categories was most likely to commit violent offenses?
  74. The systematic study of the biological basis of social behavior is known as
  75. Individuals suffering from poor __________ development are likely to seek immediate gratification without considering the long‐term consequences of their choices.
  76. The concept of __________ holds that the human mind may choose to keep certain aspects of itself out of consciousness.
  77. According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, self‐control is acquired
  78. Which of the following is a criticism of modeling theory?
  79. A verdict of __________ means that the defendant can be held responsible for a specific criminal act, even though a degree of mental incompetence may be present.
  80. Giving a good child a toy is an example of a
  81. Which of the following is not one of the early signs or indicators of psychopathy?
  82. According to the 1984 Comprehensive Crime Control Act, which of the following is not part of the definition of a career offender?
  83. Sherman’s research found that __________ percent of places in Minneapolis generated __________ percent of all calls to the police.
  84. According to Merton, which of the following would not be a socially approved means to achieving legitimate goals?
  85. Relative deprivation theory was proposed by
  86. According to the research on crime patterns in concentric zones, as the composition of the population in the zone of transition changes (e.g., because of various waves of immigration), the crime rate will
  87. Which of the following is not one of the assumptions on which most sociological perspectives of crime causation are built?
  88. According to Merton, which of the following is the mode of adaptation that typifies most middle‐ and upper‐class individuals?
  89. The social pathology model was used by early social __________ theorists.
  90. Which of the following types of emotion is not commonly found in a negative affective state?
  91. The general theory of crime was proposed by
  92. Once an individual is labeled deviant, opportunities for conforming behavior are
  93. Which of the following is not considered to be one of the most important groups contributing to the process of socialization, according to social process theories?
  94. Which of the following is not an example of a push towards crime?
  95. According to containment theory, a positive self‐image is an important __________ containment.
  96. Which of the following is not a criticism of differential association theory?
  97. __________ involves a reduction in the variety of offending.
  98. The book, The Mask of Sanity, was written by __________.
  99. Lawrence Sherman feels that the __________ paradigm offers the most hope for the future.
  100. __________ controls crime through the imprisonment of specific individuals.
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