CJUS 320 Midterm

Liberty CJUS 320 Midterm Answers

  1. Which is NOT one of the three most important reasons for effective jail classification systems?
  2. During the 1900s, prisoners served set amounts of time in crowded prisons, with little emphasis on rehabilitation or preparation for release.
  3. About how many more jails are there in the United States than prisons?
  4. Which of the following is the process during which officials determine whether a juvenile case should be dismissed, handled informally, or referred to the juvenile court?
  5. Crime is closely linked to which of the following?
I. Race
II. Poverty and drug use
III. Lack of opportunity for legitimate economic success
  6. Which correctional era advocated an environment that emphasized reformation, education, and vocational programs, and focused offenders’ attention on the future?
  7. Which of the following sentencing options authorized in state penal codes requires an offender to pay a fine or do community service in exchange for a waiver on jail time?
  8. During the 1950s, the rehabilitation of offenders replaced punishment as the penal system’s primary objective.
  9. On which model is shock probation based?
  10. Which of the following would NOT be considered a practical suicide prevention activity for a jail?
  11. With house arrest, offenders face the restriction of not being able to work at a job outside of the house.
  12. Under administrative supervision, offenders have no contact with a parole or probation officer, but they still must meet their conditions.
  13. Which of the following is NOT one of the three largest jurisdictions that combined hold more than one‐third of all female prisoners?
  14. Which of the following is NOT an alternative to bail?
  15. In which case did the Eighth Circuit Court suggest five criteria to be used to examine whether differences in prison programs discriminate against female inmates?
  16. Which stage of Maconochie’s marks system emphasized punishment and included solitary confinement and a diet of bread and water?
  17. What is the release of inmates after they have served a determinate sentence, but with a period of supervision in the community, known as?
  18. By the beginning of the twentieth century, preparation for release was considered an important part of the prison experience, and correctional systems provided programs to prepare inmates for the community transition.
  19. Which of the following is not a status offense?
  20. All of the following are responsible for the significant increase in the use of jails from 2000 to 2008 EXCEPT
  21. Offenders can pay restitution through community service.
  22. Which step does NOT occur during the formal revocation of parole?
  23. Which Supreme Court decision granted probationers the right to legal counsel during the revocation hearing?
  24. The FBI collects both juvenile and adult crime data in the annual Uniform Crime Reports.
  25. In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court determine that a finding of guilt for juveniles had to meet the standard of “beyond a reasonable doubt”?
  26. Jails have limited programs, such as education, substance abuse counseling, or work.
  27. Most states require that the staff of private prisons be public employees, not employees of the company that owns the prison.
  28. In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court uphold the use of preventive detention pending trial for juveniles.
  29. In 2010, males represented about what percentage of the violent crime arrests in the United States?
  30. The original features of the Pennsylvania system included all but which of the following?
  31. Which term describes the overlapping of criminal sanctions and added supervision for community‐placed offenders?
  32. What was the first prison designed to house sentenced offenders in the United States called?
  33. What was the emphasis in the Rehabilitative Era?
  34. Currently, drug offenders with no prior involvement in crime do not receive long, mandatory prison sentences.
  35. Under mandatory minimum sentences, the sentencing judge may impose a sentence of probation, assess a fine, or suspend the prison sentence as long as a reason is given.
  36. In which of the following sentencing models do judges have primary discretion in creating the sentence?
  37. Which of the following facilitates continuous communication between jail staff and inmates, thus reducing tension and avoiding the development of conflicts among inmates or between inmates and staff?
  38. Which of the following links crime causation to punishment, based on offenders’ free will and hedonism?
  39. What is defined as a legislative authorization to provide a specific range of punishment for a specific crime?
  40. Which term best describes children who have a parent or guardian, but are not receiving proper care or have a home situation that is harmful to them?
  41. The use of prisons as a criminal sanction has increased, in part, because of the public’s increasing fear of crime, decreasing tolerance of criminals, and demand for tougher sentencing laws.
  42. Which nineteenth‐century director of the Irish prison system created a four‐stage system of graduated release from prison?
  43. The high volume of jail admissions and releases often results in mistakes.
  44. Special conditions of parole are not similar in any way to special conditions of probation.
  45. Education is a predominant feature in juvenile residential facilities.
  46. The number of females under all types of correctional supervision has grown at a more rapid rate than the number of males under supervision.
  47. Which of the following requires that an offender repay society for the harm caused by his or her offense?
  48. The police, the courts, and judges make up the three major components of the criminal justice system.
  49. About how many inmates did state and federal prisons hold in 1967?
  50. Which of the following is a prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follows certain rules and commits no further crimes?
  51. The percentage of elderly and juvenile offenders sentenced to adult prisons is increasing.
  52. Sentenced offenders can serve up to one year in jail.
  53. Hearing procedures are the same in every state.
  54. Corrections is more a manufacturing operation than about people managing correctional clients.
  55. Inmates consider jail sentences very “easy time,” because there is so little to do.
  56. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a diversionary treatment program?
  57. What should a parole officer’s first step be if he or she thinks a parolee has failed to adhere to a technical condition of parole supervision?
  58. Which of the following statements is NOT true of a career as a warden?
  59. Which of the following is responsible for housing illegal aliens pending a hearing?
  60. Prison administrators try to keep inmates idle in their cells and quiet for as much of the day as possible.
  61. The juvenile justice system does not have intermediate sanctions between probation and incarceration.
  62. The average length of stay in a jail is 30 months.
  63. The criminal justice system has made many adjustments to involve victims in the process of sentencing criminals.
  64. Which of the following is included in a presentence investigation (PSI)?
  65. The Great Depression helped to expand the use of parole, as more people were sent to prison because of unemployment and Prohibition.
  66. Which of the following is sometimes referred to as “community control”?
  67. Inmates should do as little as possible in prison in order to prepare for release to the community.
  68. Which of the following is a recommendation of the 1967 report by the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice?
  69. By 1944, all states had adopted the use of parole and indeterminate sentences.
  70. Which law, enacted by the British Parliament in 1853, enabled prisoners to be released into the community and supervised by the police?
  71. In the juvenile justice system, the term that connotes committed the act is responsible, whereas in the adult justice system it is guilty.
  72. What percentage completion of sentence does the truth in sentencing reform require?
  73. Which of the following refers to an informal handling of a juvenile justice case, in which the delinquent juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behavior; sometimes called informal probation?
  74. Which of the following is the formal processing of a juvenile offense through the juvenile court?
  75. Before the 1970s, only the most violent and dangerous offenders went to prison, while property offenders usually got probation and supervision in the community.
  76. Which of the following statements is true of the Walnut Street Jail?
  77. The amount of money directed to criminal justice agencies has decreased greatly in recent years.
  78. When and where was the first juvenile court established?
  79. Jail staff members are always extremely outnumbered by the inmates in any correctional setting.
  80. For which of the following is a presentence investigation used?
  81. In rural counties, which elected official oversees the operation of the jail?
  82. Which constitutional amendment refers to ?cruel and unusual punishment??
  83. Most offenders today serve a determinate sentence that is much longer than in the past.
  84. The nation’s jails employ less than half as many staff members as state and federal prisons.
  85. is used only after low‐risk offenders demonstrate a good adjustment to supervision.
  86. Which of the following classifications pertaining to “supervision and conditions of parole” requires three contacts per month with at least one positive contact?
  87. Restorative justice models of sentencing shift the focus away from reactive, punishment‐oriented sentencing.
  88. Drug courts are usually a unit within the court system.
  89. Which of the following is a pledge of money or property in exchange for a promise to return for further criminal processing?
  90. Community residential center placement rarely occurs after probationers are failing under their current supervision requirement.
  91. What did the Quakers’ criminal code include?
  92. Electronic monitoring is a criminal sanction, not a method of supervision.
  93. There is currently little difference between the procedural due process requirements of the juvenile and adult justice systems.
  94. In the 1979 case Greenholtz v. Inmates of the Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complex, the Supreme Court determined that parole was legally a privilege and not a right.
  95. What is the average age of arrested juvenile gang members?
  96. Intermediate sanctions provide less supervision and monitoring than standard probation.
  97. Which Supreme Court case allowed an exception to parole violations by holding that failure to make restitution payments due to unemployment is not sufficient reason to revoke probation?
  98. How is prisoner reentry different today compared to a few decades ago?
  99. Fewer than 30 percent of felony cases result in a guilty plea by the defendant, and instead go to trial.
  100. The amount of money directed to criminal justice agencies has decreased greatly in recent years.
  101. Community residential center placement rarely occurs after probationers are failing under their current supervision requirement.
  102. As a result of sentencing guidelines and mandatory prison sentences,
  103. The FBI collects both juvenile and adult crime data in the annual Uniform Crime Reports.
  104. During the 1950s, the rehabilitation of offenders replaced punishment as the penal system’s primary objective.
  105. To improve the parental relationship between women inmates and their children, many prisons have established parenting programs that often include training classes to improve parenting skills.
  106. Which of the following accurately describes plea bargaining?
  107. Before the 1970s, only the most violent and dangerous offenders went to prison, while property offenders usually got probation and supervision in the community.
  108. The average length of stay in a jail is 30 months.
  109. Which of the following is a prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follows certain rules and commits no further crimes?
  110. Which of the following is NOT a prison security level?
  111. By the beginning of the twentieth century, preparation for release was considered an important part of the prison experience, and correctional systems provided programs to prepare inmates for the community transition.
  112. According to 2010 publication reports, what percentage of women were reconvicted or reincarcerated within two years after release?
  113. Which of the following is included in a presentence investigation (PSI)?
  114. In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court set forth that juveniles must have “the essentials of due process”?
  115. Violence is equally likely in male prisons and female prisons.
  116. Restorative justice models of sentencing shift the focus away from reactive, punishment‐oriented sentencing.
  117. What does Wilbanks state in The Myth of a Racist Criminal Justice System?
  118. Which document does a parole officer write when a parole violation occurs and the offender does not cooperate or absconds from supervision?
  119. Which of the following facilitates continuous communication between jail staff and inmates, thus reducing tension and avoiding the development of conflicts among inmates or between inmates and staff?
  120. Which of the following statements is NOT true of a career as a warden?
  121. Early jails in the American colonies followed the English model.
  122. Which of the following is the formal processing of a juvenile offense through the juvenile court?
  123. Who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons?
  124. Which constitutional amendment states that excessive bail may not be required?
  125. Atavism implied that criminals are born, and criminal behavior is predetermined.
  126. An important feature in the organization of parole decision‐making is that the parole board is independent from prison administrators.
  127. Which of the following refers to an informal handling of a juvenile justice the delinquent juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behavior; sometimes called informal probation?
  128. What is a major difference between the juvenile and criminal justice systems?
  129. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways the 2007 Second Chance Act proposed to ease the reentry process for individuals leaving prison?
  130. About how many inmates did state and federal prisons hold in 1967?
  131. At the end of 2010, the population of state and federal prisons was largely
  132. Pretrial diversion programs are also referred to as “deferred prosecution” or “probation without adjudication.”
  133. Offenders can pay restitution through community service.
  134. The use of prisons as a criminal sanction has increased, in part, because of the public’s increasing fear of crime, decreasing tolerance of criminals, and demand for tougher sentencing laws.
  135. Neither rehabilitation nor juvenile accountability alone has been effective in dealing with juvenile drug crime.
  136. The length of parole supervision following release from prison is never more than a year.
  137. is used only after low‐risk offenders demonstrate a good adjustment to supervision.
  138. During the 1900s, prisoners served set amounts of time in crowded prisons, with little emphasis on rehabilitation or preparation for release.
  139. Which of the following is described as statistical approaches to consider the risk of escape and violence by inmates?
  140. Which is NOT a factor that has been cited in support of intermediate sanctions?
  141. The number of females under all types of correctional supervision has grown at a more rapid rate than the number of males under supervision.
  142. Which of the following is a recommendation of the 1967 report by the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice?
  143. In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court determine that a finding of guilt for juveniles had to meet the standard of “beyond a reasonable doubt”?
  144. There is a large numerical difference between the number of crimes reported and the number of offenders convicted and facing any specific correctional sanction.
  145. What are prison security levels designed to match? I. Staff resources
II. Physical security
III. Risk of inmate violence and escape
  146. Special conditions of parole are not similar in any way to special conditions of probation.
  147. The makeup of the prison population is increasingly black and brown, as white offenders comprise a continually smaller proportion of the prison population.
  148. Inmates should do as little as possible in prison in order to prepare for release to the community.
  149. Which of the following classifications pertaining to “supervision and conditions of parole” requires three contacts per month with at least one positive contact?
  150. Which U.S. penologist advocated the Irish system in the United States and became the first superintendent of the Elmira Reformatory?
  151. Which is NOT one of the three most important reasons for effective jail classification systems?
  152. Which of the following is NOT an alternative to bail?
  153. Which system was known as the “congregate and silent” system?
  154. Nonincarceration sentences include economic sanctions, probation, and intermediate sanctions.
  155. Which of the following decreases as prison security level increases?
  156. Under the medical model, offenders were believed to be “sick,” inflicted with problems that caused their criminality.
  157. How do correctional agencies fulfill their mission?
I. By imprisoning offenders who receive a sentence of incarceration from the courts II. By assisting courts in the decision to grant bail
III. By supervising offenders in the community under court jurisdiction
  158. What is defined as a legislative authorization to provide a specific range of punishment for a specific crime?
  159. Which early colonial bail system enabled rich offenders to pay a fee and be released?
  160. Prisons were developed in colonial times as a punishment for crime.
  161. In the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, Congress required assessments of the juvenile justice system to identify youth who were helped, rather than victimized, by placement in juvenile facilities.
  162. Which of the following is a problem with the system of bail as a requirement for release?
  163. The major component of which of the following alternatives to incarceration is military regimentation, discipline, exercise, and hard work?
  164. In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court uphold the use of preventive detention pending trial for juveniles.
  165. Which of the following is NOT a possible result if the court finds that a probationer is in violation?
  166. The highest number of people in the custody of state correctional authorities from 1980‐2009 was due to which type of offense?
  167. In Maconochie’s mark system, during the initial penal stage of incarceration inmates could begin to earn marks through work, program participation, and good behavior.
  168. Criminologists have consistently found that, when compared to youth who do not belong to gangs, gang members are far more involved in delinquency, especially serious and violent delinquency.
  169. Boot camps are gaining in popularity because they are less expensive to operate than other methods of incarceration.
  170. The stages of which of the following systems are solitary confinement, special prison, open institutions, and ticket of leave?
  171. The criminal justice system has made many adjustments to involve victims in the process of sentencing criminals.
  172. Who among the following concluded that criminals had traits that made them throwbacks to earlier stages of evolution?
  173. Corrections is more a manufacturing operation than about people managing correctional clients.
  174. The Great Depression helped to expand the use of parole, as more people were sent to prison because of unemployment and Prohibition.
  175. Under administrative supervision, offenders have no contact with a parole or probation officer, but they still must meet their conditions.
  176. What is specific deterrence?
  177. Which, according to Gowdy, is a factor contributing to the expansion of the private sector’s role in the penal system?
  178. Which probation style mimics the community policing philosophy and partners with citizens groups, churches, and other neighborhood organizations?
  179. Jail staff members are always extremely outnumbered by the inmates in any correctional setting.
  180. Which of the following requires that an offender repay society for the harm caused by his or her offense?
  181. Intermediate sanctions provide less supervision and monitoring than standard probation.
  182. Over the last thirty years, the number of criminal offenders with mental illness has risen.
  183. Under mandatory minimum sentences, the sentencing judge may impose a sentence of probation, assess a fine, or suspend the prison sentence as long as a reason is given.
  184. What is the hands‐off doctrine?
  185. Which of the following is characteristic of a third‐generation jail?
  186. Which of the following is NOT a goal of mental health courts?
  187. A crime that is punishable by less than one year of incarceration is a felony.
  188. Which of the following describes the process of finding a juvenile guilty of a delinquent act?
  189. Which law, enacted by the British Parliament in 1853, enabled prisoners to be released into the community and supervised by the police?
  190. On which model is shock probation based?
  191. Most states require presentence investigations (PSIs) for felony cases that allow the possibility of probation.
  192. In the United States, the rate of imprisonment decreased by almost 20 percent between 1980 and 2009.
  193. Which of the following is NOT a factor inherent in correctional settings that hampers the provision of health services?
  194. Which federal institutions have special missions, such as the detention of pretrial offenders or containment of extremely dangerous inmates?
  195. Sentence length has been increasing due to many “tough on crime” statutes that have been passed since 1980.
  196. Which Supreme Court case allowed an exception to parole violations by holding that failure to make restitution payments due to unemployment is not sufficient reason to revoke probation?
  197. General deterrence presumes that others in society will not commit crimes because they see that there is a punishment for such acts, and that individuals receive the prescribed punishments.
  198. The warden is the elected official who oversees both policing activities within the county and the operation of the jail.
  199. In 1994, California restricted the definition of three‐strikes laws to exclude some second‐felony offenders.
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