CJUS 320 Final Exam

Liberty CJUS 320 Final Exam Answers

  1. Which of the following statements suggests prevalence of reasoned staff‐inmate culture in a prison?
  2. Which prison gang is also known as the Texas Mexican Mafia?
  3. Mentally ill offenders are generally deterred by typical punishment.
  4. It is important to provide drug treatment to offenders on probation.
  5. Which of the following refers to gang members telling correctional officials everything they know about the gang operations and membership?
  6. Substance abuse treatment programs are critical activities within prisons because such a high proportion of inmates have a history of drug or alcohol abuse.
  7. Even if deterrence does not work, advocates suggest that long sentences will at least rehabilitate offenders.
  8. In which case did the Supreme Court rule that a bona fide occupational qualification prohibiting female correctional officers was allowable because of deplorable prison conditions and the presence of predatory male sex offenders as inmates?
  9. Open prison systems do not permit autonomous wardens who run their prisons as they desire and answer to no one.
  10. What is a common serious concern regarding continuing the death penalty?
  11. What is the approximate rate of increase in the number of correctional employees working at the federal, state, and local levels in the United States between 1992 to 2003?
  12. Federal Bureau of Prisons policy requires that validated gang members (not associates or suspects) be assigned to a maximum‐security prison.
  13. Many prison inmates work in trades areas such as heating and air conditioning, learning skills that can help them find jobs after release.
  14. Use of cell phones by inmates is NOT a serious problem for prisons.
  15. A warden may directly instruct a correctional officer to carry out a function without passing the instruction through correctional supervisors.
  16. Religious programs are prohibited in state and federal prisons due to the separation of church and state.
  17. Inmates are not allowed to solicit other inmates to join an inmate union and have union meetings.
  18. Which of the following is NOT included in the “comprehensive approach” toward sex offenders?
  19. In the past, wardens had many demands on them to be external managers because corrections was of great interest to elected officials, the courts, or the media.
  20. Prisons and jails have different missions, but there is little difference in the role that correctional officers play in the two types of facilities.
  21. Women in prisons have always received vocational training in a wide variety of occupations, not just cooking, sewing, and cleaning.
  22. Fewer offenders are supervised in the community than are in prison and jail.
  23. Which of the following represents the percentage increase in the number of inmates between 2000 and 2010 held in private prisons?
  24. Which of the following is the time when inmates move to their assigned jobs or programs assignments?
  25. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Goffman’s total institution that results in isolation and inability to act for oneself?
  26. A good explanation for the high level of violence within prisons is that prisons hold violent people who act out in violent ways.
  27. The Violent Crime Control Act of 1994 halted inmate lawsuits.
  28. Which of the following is NOT true of current community supervision strategies?
  29. According to the 2003 ACA survey, what was the most frequently cited reason for difficulty in recruiting correctional officers?
  30. Correctional officials encourage the housing of juvenile offenders in prisons with older adult felons.
  31. Which 1948 Supreme Court decision supported the hands‐off doctrine?
  32. New uses of technology to make prisons safer include all of the following EXCEPT which?
  33. Which of the following is a schedule of all the appointments and required moves for a day, including the name and expected times of the moves?
  34. Which of the following diseases is most commonly spread through the bloodstream as a result of drug users sharing needles?
  35. A relatively low percentage of inmates have mental health problems.
  36. A high level of supervision in the community can prevent offenders from committing further crimes.
  37. What is the relationship that exists when two inmates become jealous and fight over another inmate?
  38. Which of the following steps was NOT taken by Zebulon Brockway while introducing reforms for female prisoners?
  39. When treating a sex offender under civil commitment, which of the following is expected?
  40. Inmates do not have an expectation of privacy while in prison.
  41. Furman v. Georgia effectively constituted a ban on capital punishment in the United States.
  42. The need for drug treatment in prisons far exceeds the provision of drug treatment programs.
  43. Which of the following is NOT true about having a staff that is diverse in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity?
  44. At what point in the staff‐inmate culture continuum does staff demand compliance from inmates through threats and intimidation?
  45. Which of the following is considered a benefit of having women as correctional officers?
  46. Which of the following prison officers manages resources, acts as a role model for staff, and defines professional expectations?
  47. Which of the following sets of experts suggested the “three‐culture” model for prisons?
  48. A precipitating event is often thought of as the “spark in the haystack” that sets off an inmate riot.
  49. In which 1977 case did the Supreme Court disagree to adding steak and wine on the prison menu for inmates who practiced the new religion of the Church of the New Song (CONS)?
  50. Post orders and general policies both spell out how to do prison activities.
  51. Which of the following is true of transactional leaders in a prison?
  52. Inmates can only receive books and magazines directly from the publisher.
  53. Offenders convicted of rape and sexual assaults have lower recidivism rates than other violent offenders.
  54. Which of the following is NOT one of the eight main types of activities that contribute to the security and custody functions within a prison?
  55. What was the decision in 1970 Supreme Court case of Gittlemacker v. Prasse?
  56. Investigations of inmate riots and disturbances have discovered that most are not planned or precisely initiated by inmate leaders.
  57. Approximately what percentage of female inmates are mothers?
  58. Electronic messages are not allowed to be sent into prisons in any state.
  59. One of the reasons for the slowdown in the growth of incarcerated offenders is that many states have increased their use of alternatives to incarceration.
  60. In recent years, public support for the death penalty appears to be getting stronger.
  61. Neither the mission nor the organizational structure of prisons has changed much over the past 50 years.
  62. Why do some states use supermax prisons for inmates who have not committed a violent act in prison?
  63. What did the Supreme Court decide in Roper v. Simmons?
  64. Since the mid‐1980s, criminal sentencing has focused on public safety rather than on changing behavior through treatment of the offender.
  65. Which of the following counts is the most formal count of the day and occurs at 4:00 p.m. everyday?
  66. Inmates stay at the prison to which they were originally assigned throughout their entire term of incarceration.
  67. Which of the following is true regarding mental health programs?
  68. Not all drug offenders are drug addicts, or even drug users.
  69. The early North American colonies and England used capital punishment as a penalty only for murder.
  70. What do prisons do through the use of rewards and punishments to bring inmates to a law‐abiding lifestyle?
  71. Correctional officers and supervisors make up approximately what percentage of all staff in state and federal prisons?
  72. Inmates who need a separation of longer than 12 months from a prison’s inmate population are either transferred to another prison or placed in a supermax facility.
  73. Which was the first supermax prison in the United States?
  74. Which condition has declined over the past few years, from 2.3 percent of the prison population in 1995 to 1.5 percent in 2008?
  75. The federal prison system and forty‐seven states do random drug testing of inmates for drug use.
  76. Which of the following provide for the management and secure control of inmates designated as violent or seriously disruptive in other prisons?
  77. The training and orientation of community supervision officers is becoming less like that of law enforcement officers.
  78. A 2002 opinion poll found that the public’s view of the most effective way to reduce crime is to
  79. Which of the following is an organizational source of stress in prisons?
  80. Which of the following types of sanction used for inmate discipline by most correctional systems is the least severe?
  81. Which of the following is a specific training in a trade area to prepare students to work in that trade?
  82. Which department do service staff work in?
  83. What is the process to promote and recognize improvement in the management of correctional agencies through the administration of voluntary standards?
  84. Once an offender is sentenced to prison, a reception and classification process begins.
  85. A safe prison is one in which staff and inmates are relatively safe from assaults or other violent acts.
  86. The notion of restorative justice suggests that the correctional and other justice agencies partner with other critical stakeholders such as victims of a crime.
  87. is known as a practice that is not formalized in statute or written policy, but that develops through a consistent set of pressures that influence the practice in a specific manner.
  88. Which of the following is considered a good deterrent to and source of data about use of narcotics by prison inmates?
  89. Which of the following is NOT a typical consequence of understaffing?
  90. When was the last public execution in the United States held?
  91. Internal classification systems are instruments used to assign inmates to housing or programs after they are placed in a particular prison.
  92. Which of the following is considered as the most controversial area of prison programming?
  93. Most prisons provide full due process rights for handling inmate discipline.
  94. Which Supreme Court decision effectively ended the hands‐off doctrine?
  95. Many prison gangs started as an extension of street gangs.
  96. Which of the following is NOT one of the three variations of the legal process of transferring juvenile offenders to adult court?
  97. Disciplinary segregation is a nonpunitive confinement in SHU used to house inmates whose continued presence in the general population may pose a serious threat to the security or orderly running of the prison.
  98. What did the Supreme Court decide in Rhodes v. Chapman?
  99. In which of the following programs do private companies hire inmates to produce goods inside the prison?
  100. Which of the following are assets to prison operations, provide funds to operate, and reduce recidivism?
  101. Most inmates are required to work for approximately how many hours per day and days per week?
  102. Not all drug offenders are drug addicts, or even drug users.
  103. What did the Supreme Court decide in Roper v. Simmons?
  104. Most staff in prison interact extensively with other staff, to a much greater proportion than they do with other inmates.
  105. Which of the following types of sanction used for inmate discipline by most correctional systems is the least severe?
  106. Post orders and general policies both spell out how to do prison activities.
  107. A pass system schedules all the appointments and required moves for a day, including the name and expected times of the moves.
  108. Prisons and jails have different missions, but there is little difference in the role that correctional officers play in the two types of facilities.
  109. Which of the following is NOT one of the eight main types of activities that contribute to the security and custody functions within a prison?
  110. One of the reasons for the slowdown in the growth of incarcerated offenders is that many states have increased their use of alternatives to incarceration.
  111. Which of the following refers to the staff’s ability to locate and identify inmates at any point in time within a prison?
  112. A safe prison is one in which staff and inmates are relatively safe from assaults or other violent acts.
  113. Which of the following is NOT a step adopted by one or more states for the purpose of reducing recidivism and helping prisoners reenter society?
  114. There is no place for humor in prison.
  115. What is the style of supervision by staff who are not responsible for inmates, but can still see their movements or activities?
  116. Which of the following refers to the activities within a prison that control inmate behavior and maintain order?
  117. Which of the following is NOT a part of the usual inmate disciplinary system?
  118. How do most male inmates adjust to incarceration?
  119. Which of the following is true of transactional leaders in a prison?
  120. Correctional officials encourage the housing of juvenile offenders in prisons with older adult felons.
  121. What is the dominant feature of the supermax prison?
  122. Which condition has declined over the past few years, from 2.3 percent of the prison population in 1995 to 1.5 percent in 2008?
  123. Use of cell phones by inmates is NOT a serious problem for prisons.
  124. The federal prison system and forty‐seven states do random drug testing of inmates for drug use.
  125. Vocational training is specific training in a trade area such as carpentry, electronics, welding, office equipment, and word processing.
  126. Due to significant public opposition to recreation programs for inmates, recreation is not considered as an important part of prison programming
  127. What was the approximate prevalence of any drug dependence or abuse among state and federal prisoners in 2004?
  128. Studies have found either no or only minor differences in the attitudes and job performance of women compared to men working in prisons.
  129. Victims have historically been included in the criminal justice process.
  130. Inmates do not have an expectation of privacy while in prison.
  131. Which administrative function is not a typical responsibility of the central organization of a correctional agency?
  132. Fewer offenders are supervised in the community than are in prison and jail.
  133. Which of the following is considered a good deterrent to and source of data about use of narcotics by prison inmates?
  134. Uniformed staff and professional staff in the prison have interchangeable roles and responsibilities.
  135. Prison gangs are declining in U.S. prisons.
  136. Which is NOT a preventive action that prison administrators can take to reduce inmate unrest?
  137. In which 2002 case did the Supreme Court determine that executions of mentally retarded criminals were “cruel and unusual” punishment?
  138. Which of the following does not report to the unit manager?
  139. Mental health programs do not play a critical role in accomplishing the mission of a correctional facility.
  140. Why did Congress in 1994 specifically eliminate inmates from being eligible to receive Pell grants?
  141. Which of the following is a specific training in a trade area to prepare students to work in that trade?
  142. Inmates can only receive books and magazines directly from the publisher.
  143. Treatment is the creation of an environment and provision of rehabilitative programs that encourage inmates to accept responsibility.
  144. Which of the following emergency teams is trained in the use of lethal force when all else fails to resolve an emergency situation?
  145. Approximately ________ of the states are involved in the PIE Program, which employed about ________ inmates in 2001.
  146. What is the term Fabelo used to refer to correctional agencies taking advantage of new technologies to reduce the costs of supervising criminal offenders and minimize the risk they pose to society?
  147. Minorities are on death row at a rate well below their representation in the U.S. population.
  148. Prisons are not legally required to provide sufficient legal materials to enable inmates to conduct legal research in order to have reasonable access to the courts.
  149. Most prisons provide full due process rights for handling inmate discipline.
  150. Which of the following statements is true regarding the U.S. prison population during the period between 2000 and 2010?
  151. What position is most critical to the day‐to‐day management of a prison?
  152. Developed as a means to enhance credibility and professionalism of correctional agencies, ________ is seen by most correctional officials as a worthy endeavor, yet others see it as a bureaucratic nuisance.
  153. Which of the following is NOT a measure used by prison staff to reduce the number of sexual assaults in prisons?
  154. What is the largest professional organization for corrections in the United States?
  155. Which of the following is NOT a condition necessary for prison policies and procedures to effectively contribute to the overall prison mission?
  156. What do prisons do through the use of rewards and punishments to bring inmates to a law‐abiding lifestyle?
  157. There is increasing evidence of positive results from treatment programs.
  158. Good oral and written interpersonal skills are not really necessary for a successful career as a correctional worker.
  159. Correctional officers assigned to housing units have post order requirements to search a certain number of cells every day, and teams of staff may be assigned to an area for a complete search.
  160. Courts use the totality‐of‐conditions test to determine whether the overall conditions within a prison constitute cruel and unusual punishment.
  161. Prisons are designed and operational processes created specifically to hold young and physically active inmates.
  162. Both overclassifying and underclassifying inmates can cause problems, because housing high‐security inmates in a low‐ or minimum‐ security facility increases the potential for escape or violence.
  163. The public interest in and expectations for corrections have risen in the recent years.
  164. Which of the following is NOT true about having a staff that is diverse in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity?
  165. In all states, jail standards are left up to local jurisdictions.
  166. Religious programs are prohibited in state and federal prisons due to the separation of church and state.
  167. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that has led to the recent reduction in the number of inmate lawsuits?
  168. Which officers are usually assigned to some of the most sensitive and explosive areas of the prison?
  169. What kind of application process is used to determine whether correctional job candidates have issues that could put them in a compromising situation or make them more likely to accept a bribe?
  170. Which was the first supermax prison in the United States?
  171. A lease system allows prison‐made goods to be sold to and used by only state and federal government agencies.
  172. The need for drug treatment in prisons far exceeds the provision of drug treatment programs.
  173. Which of the following is a form of incarceration in which juveniles handled by adult courts are placed in adult prisons with no separate housing or differentiation in programming or job assignments?
  174. Which Supreme Court decision effectively ended the hands‐off doctrine?
  175. Prison work and program assignments are an important part of the normal routine of the prison day.
  176. Inmates stay at the prison to which they were originally assigned throughout their entire term of incarceration.
  177. Which of the following is NOT true regarding inmate movements within a prison?
  178. The legal process for transferring juveniles to the adult court system varies from state to state, primarily focusing on who has the discretion to make the transfer or waiver decision.
  179. Which of the following is true regarding religious programs in prison?
  180. Which category of violent inmate is predatory, calculating, and usually acts violently for no good reason?
  181. Which is a key component of inmate accountability policies and procedures?
  182. Which of the following is true of restorative justice sentencing models?
  183. In recent years, public support for the death penalty appears to be getting stronger.
  184. The Prison Rape Elimination Act requires the collection of information on the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities.
  185. In which 1972 case did the Supreme Court hold that inmates be given a “reasonable opportunity” to practice their religion?
  186. Correctional agencies are designed to provide mental health programs to the same extent as mental health agencies.
  187. Investigations of inmate riots and disturbances have discovered that most are not planned or precisely initiated by inmate leaders.
  188. Which of the following refers to the process of creating an environment and providing rehabilitative programs that encourage inmates to accept responsibility and to address personal disorders?
  189. A special emergency response team is trained in the use of lethal force when all else fails to resolve an emergency situation.
  190. A relatively low percentage of inmates have mental health problems.
  191. A small percentage of inmates are truly violent and predatory and continue violent acts while in prison.
  192. Antipsychotic drugs provided a humane alternative to the deleterious placement of patients in the old state mental hospitals, where patients often had little to do and received minimal treatment.
  193. Which of the following is not an element of a state’s death penalty that must exist in order to be constitutional, according to the Supreme Court’s decision in Gregg v. Georgia?
  194. Open prison systems do not permit autonomous wardens who run their prisons as they desire and answer to no one.
  195. In order to protect the public, state legislatures have been passing laws defining a new type of mental disorder that allows diagnosis of sex offenders as
  196. What is the title of the highest ranking uniformed officer?
  197. Which of the following is a theory of how inmate culture becomes a part of prison life?
  198. Inmates are not allowed to solicit other inmates to join an inmate union and have union meetings.
  199. Kansas elected officials implemented a plan to reduce prison admissions by providing counties with financial incentives to create
  200. Correctional jobs are
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