CJUS 310 Quiz 2

Liberty CJUS 310 Quiz 2 Answers

Set 1

  1. refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.
  2. Henry Kempe of the University of Colorado coined the term “battered child syndrome.”
  3. Today about _____ of African American children live in a two-parent household.
  4. According to the text, there are four categories of family dysfunction that seem to promote delinquent behavior. Which of the following is not one of these four categories?
  5. In the United States today, an estimated _____ children die each year because of abuse.
  6. In the cases of Lassiter v. Department of Social Services and Santosky v. Kramer, the U.S. Supreme Court recognized the child’s right to be free from parental abuse.
  7. A _____ gang concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most delinquent behavior.
  8. In some instances, a peer group provides the social and emotional basis for antisocial activity. When this happens:
  9. A popular headpiece among Asian gang members is the “stingy brim” fedora or a baseball cap with the wearer’s nickname and gang affiliation written on the bill.
  10. Which of the following statements about the impact of peer relations is true?
  11. Strength or power is asserted through the terms rifa, which means to rule, and controllo indicating that the gang controls the area.
  12. Klikas are subgroups of same-aged youths in Hispanic gangs that remain together and have separate names and a unique identity in the gang.
  13. The 1969 Supreme Court case of Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District is the most important case concerning:
  14. According to the United States Supreme Court, to justify prohibiting a form of speech or expression of opinion, the school must be able to show that the forbidden conduct will substantially interfere with the discipline required to operate the school.
  15. According to the text, only 25 percent of schools control access to school buildings by locking or monitoring doors.
  16. Which of the following best describes the United States Supreme Court ruling in Ingraham v. Wright concerning corporal punishment in schools?
  17. In the 1984 United States Supreme Court case New Jersey v. T.L.O. the court ruled that students were protected against unreasonable searches and seizures, but that school personnel are not bound by the same restrictions as police officers.
  18. A school-based prevention program based on behavioral strategies is most likely to involve:
  19. A Secret Service study found that over 50 percent of school shooters are minority-group members.
  20. Research shows that biological children of alcoholics raised by non-alcoholic adoptive parents more often develop alcohol problems than the natural children of adoptive parents.
  21. The War on Drugs has been a major source of the racial discrimination that occurs in the juvenile justice system.
  22. are central nervous system depressants, and they produce loss of sensation, stupor, and unconsciousness.
  23. According to the text, the association between drug use, race, and poverty has been linked to the:
  24. Some experts believe that drug dependency is a genetic condition.
  25. According to the National Youth Survey, there is little if any association between drug use and social class.
  26. Natural substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness are known as:
  27. The concept of deinstitutionalization was established by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Act of 1994.
  28. From the court’s creation in 1899 until the late 1960s, the burden of proof in a juvenile court case was:
  29. Probation is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders.
  30. Which of the following statements about the juvenile justice system is false?
  31. Like adults, juveniles are indicted for a crime.
  32. Prior to the creation of the juvenile court, how were juveniles who violated the law treated?
  33. In 1817 prominent New Yorkers formed the _____, which viewed the moral training of youths from the dangerous classes as inadequate.
  34. Community policing and problem-oriented policing are alike in that both are viewed as proactive delinquency prevention strategies.
  35. Meda Chesney-Lind found that adolescent female status offenders are arrested for less serious offenses than boys.
  36. According to _____, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case, otherwise known as the totality of the circumstances.
  37. Which of the following statements is true regarding gender police treatment?
  38. In a classic 1963 study, Nathan Goldman examined the arrest records of more than a thousand juveniles from four communities in Pennsylvania and concluded that the majority of the police contacts with juveniles were handled informally.
  39. For every five hundred juveniles taken into custody, around _____ percent are sent to juvenile court.
  40. The FBI estimates that almost two-thirds of all juvenile arrests are:

Other sets

  1. In _____, the Court ruled that one‐way CCTV could serve as the equivalent of in court testimony and would not interfere with the defendant’s right to confront witnesses.
  2. At the _____, the attorney for the social service agency presents an overview of the case and the evidence; matters such as admissibility of photos and written reports are settled. The attorneys can negotiate a settlement of the case, in which the parents accept a treatment plan.
  3. In the United States today, an estimated _____ children die each year because of abuse.
  4. Because people are generally sympathetic to abused children, delinquents with abuse backgrounds get lighter sentences than those who were not abused.
  5. In a 1992 case, _____, the Supreme Court ruled that the state’s attorney is required neither to produce young victims at trial nor to demonstrate the reason why they were unavailable to serve as witnesses.
  6. A _____ is a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.
  7. According to _____ theory, delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society.
  8. Strength or power is asserted through the terms rifa, which means to rule, and controllo indicating that the gang controls the area.
  9. When gang members toss or ash signs to proclaim their gang membership, this is called:
  10. According to the _____ view, female members are still sexually exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other females.
  11. According to the text, _____ are aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensely disliked by their peers.
  12. Co‐o ending is defined as:
  13. According to the United States Supreme Court, to justify prohibiting a form of speech or expression of opinion, the school must be able to show that the forbidden conduct will substantially interfere with the discipline required to operate the school.
  14. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, what percentage of public schools report at least one violent crime occurred at their school?
  15. Experts have concluded that many of the underlying problems of delinquency are connected with the nature and quality of the school experience.
  16. A school‐based prevention program based on behavioral strategies is most likely to involve:
  17. Delinquency has been associated with low self‐control and impulsivity, traits that also may produce school failure.
  18. According to the text, almost half of all female dropouts left school because they were pregnant or had already given birth.
  19. Family dysfunction increases the chances of dropping out of school among all racial and ethnic groups.
  20. Anabolic steroids are physically addictive.
  21. Some experts believe that drug dependency is a genetic condition.
  22. Recent survey results indicate that drug use among adolescents is on the decline from peak levels in the 1990s.
  23. Crack is manufactured by using _____ to remove hydrochlorides to create a crystaline form of cocaine that can be smoked.
  24. According to the text, the most widely used designer drug is ecstasy, which is derived from:
  25. According to the National Youth Survey, there is little if any association between drug use and social class.
  26. Natural substances that produce vivid distortions of the senses without greatly disturbing consciousness are known as:
  27. The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals was established by the Reagan administration and it called for a complete dissolution of the Juvenile Justice System.
  28. By 1930 about _____ youths were placed out in rural homesteads by the Children’s Aid Society.
  29. Which of the following is not a principle consideration of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899?
  30. According to the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899, children should not be held as accountable as adult transgressors.
  31. According to the text, which of the following statements best describes what children’s legal rights were like during the period of the Child Savers?
  32. Which of the following is not offered in the text as a potential bene t of teen courts?
  33. Which of the following best describes the goals of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899?
  34. According to the text, which of the following is a source of police discretion?
  35. was the chief of police in Berkeley, California, who required university training, used modern management techniques, and instituted prevention programs.
  36. refers to a style of law enforcement that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather than the incidents alone.
  37. In the case People v. Lara, the court ruled that a juvenile may waive their Miranda rights, but the test of the validity of the waiver is the totality of the circumstances.
  38. Most studies conclude that nine variables are important in the police discretionary process. Which of the following is not one of these variables?
  39. Study after study nd that Native American teens are the most likely to view the police as dishonest.
  40. According to _____, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case, otherwise known as the totality of the circumstances.
  41. is manifested by constant criticism and rejection of the child by the parents.
  42. According to the text, 75 percent of African American children will experience parental separation or divorce before they reach age sixteen.
  43. refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.
  44. Research indicates that children growing up in broken homes were less adjusted than children growing up in homes with high levels of conflict.
  45. Boys are more affected by both the quality of the mother’s parenting and post‐divorce parental conflict.
  46. In a 1992 case, _____, the Supreme Court ruled that the state’s attorney is required neither to produce young victims at trial nor to demonstrate the reason why they were unavailable to serve as witnesses.
  47. Control theorists contend that delinquents are alienated from conventional society, but maintain strong positive bonds to delinquent friends.
  48. Which of the following best describes the most common reason for gang member migration in the United States?
  49. According to Thrasher, _____ areas are cracks and voids in the social, political, and economic fabric of society.
  50. A _____ gang concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most delinquent behavior.
  51. In some instances, a peer group provides the social and emotional basis for antisocial activity. When this happens:
  52. A _____ gang is heavily involved in criminality, particularly in drug sales and they use violence to establish control over drug sale territories.
  53. According to the text, over 50 percent of students are bullied in school.
  54. According to the text, high school dropouts are more likely to stay out of prisons than those who have a high school diploma.
  55. Delinquency has been associated with low self‐control and impulsivity, traits that also may produce school failure.
  56. Academic tracking is an effective method for providing academic success to all students in a school.
  57. What legal doctrine gives the schools the right to assume some of the duties of parents, including discipline?
  58. Family dysfunction increases the chances of dropping out of school among all racial and ethnic groups.
  59. Which of the following best describes the United States Supreme Court ruling in Ingraham v. Wright concerning corporal punishment in schools?
  60. Today, Afghanistan is the world leader in opium production.
  61. Almost two‐thirds of all admissions treatment facilities in the United States involved _____ as the primary drug of abuse.
  62. Methedrine is the most widely used and most dangerous:
  63. Levitt and Venkatesh’s research on the financial activities of a drug‐selling street gang indicates that:
  64. Crack is manufactured by using _____ to remove hydrochlorides to create a crystaline form of cocaine that can be smoked.
  65. therapy involves getting users to associate drugs with unpleasant sensations, such as nausea.
  66. The association between delinquency and drug use has been established in a variety of cultures.
  67. Which of the following is not noted as a benefit of using the comprehensive strategy in the text?
  68. In their study of the early juvenile court in Memphis, Tennessee, Shelden and Osborne noted that more than 96 percent of the actions with which females were charged were:
  69. Head Start and Smart Start are examples of intervention programs that focus on teenage youths.
  70. Which of the following statements about a detention hearing is true?
  71. According to the text, which of the following is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders?
  72. By 1930 about _____ youths were placed out in rural homesteads by the Children’s Aid Society.
  73. Unlike juveniles, adults have a constitutional right to counsel.
  74. Most studies conclude that nine variables are important in the police discretionary process. Which of the following is not one of these variables?
  75. According to _____, juveniles can waive their Miranda rights, but the validity of the waiver is determined by the circumstances of each case, otherwise known as the totality of the circumstances.
  76. Most courts have held that the Fourth Amendment ban against unreasonable search and seizure applies to juveniles.
  77. The right to remain silent, right to an attorney, and the idea that statements made voluntarily will be used against the person make up the:
  78. In the case People v. Lara, the court ruled that a juvenile may waive their Miranda rights, but the test of the validity of the waiver is the totality of the circumstances.
  79. refers to a style of law enforcement that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather than the incidents alone.
  80. The FBI estimates that almost two‐thirds of all juvenile arrests are:
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