CJUS 310 Quiz 1

Liberty CJUS 310 Quiz 1 Answers

Set 1

  1. While teen smoking and drinking rates are currently low, their use of heroin and crack cocaine is higher than in the past.
  2. Under the JJDPA and its subsequent reauthorizations, what were states required to do in order to receive federal funds?
  3. The House of Refuge was developed to protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the street and providing a familylike environment.
  4. Which key provision of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act is false?
  5. In the United States, early colonists viewed family violence as a sin, which led to the first child protection laws in the late 1630s.
  6. Prior to the twentieth century, little distinction was made between adult and juvenile offenders.
  7. Liquor law violations and drug trafficking are examples of part II offenses.
  8. Delinquency rates decline with age.
  9. The NCVS is a household survey of offenders that measures the nature of the crime and the characteristics of the offenders.
  10. Manslaughter and forcible rape are examples of part II offenses.
  11. According to the text, kids who engage in the most serious forms of delinquency are more likely to be members of the upper class.
  12. In 2008, juveniles accounted for 1% of all arrests for part I offenses.
  13. Classical criminology suggests that delinquent acts, especially violent ones, are not rational choices but uncontrollable, irrational behaviors.
  14. Which of the following statements about specific deterrence is false?
  15. According to _____ theory, delinquency is a function of personal predispositions such as temperament, personality, hormones, or genetics.
  16. Twin studies and adoption studies provide no evidence that delinquent-producing traits may be inherited.
  17. The volume and distribution of predatory crimes in a particular area and at a particular time is influenced by the interaction of three variables. Which of the following is not one of these variables?
  18. According to data from the Cambridge Youth Survey, fewer sons of noncriminal fathers become chronic offenders than youths with criminal fathers.
  19. Cognitive theory contends that the choice to commit delinquent acts can be controlled by the threat of punishment; if people believe illegal behavior will result in severe sanctions, they will choose not to commit crimes.
  20. Labeling theory is primarily concerned with identifying the way society reacts to individuals and the way individuals react to society to shape or influence behavior.
  21. Which of the following is not one of the principles of restorative justice?
  22. Learning theories assume that children are born good and learn to be bad.
  23. Which element of Hirschi’s social bond is illustrated by maintaining a positive image in the community, good work history, and high aspirations for future accomplishments?
  24. The concept of social disorganization was first recognized by sociologists:
  25. In restorative justice, the community’s obligation is to the victim of the crime and not to the offender.
  26. Social learning theory stresses that kids learn both how to commit crimes and the attitudes needed to support the behavior.
  27. Which of the following theories attributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhood socialization and pro- or antisocial attachments over the life course?
  28. Research shows that children who are raised in two-parent families are less likely to grow up to have happier marriages than children whose parents were divorced or never married.
  29. Problem behavior syndrome advocates believe that delinquency is but one of several social problems experienced by at risk youths.
  30. Policy-based initiatives based on premises of _____ theory typically feature multisystematic treatment efforts designed to provide at-risk kids with personal, social, education, and family services.
  31. Latent trait theories assume that an individual’s behavior is linked less to personal change than to changes in the surrounding world.
  32. Moffitt’s concept of _____ describes a situation where anti-social behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes for most offenders.
  33. A life course persister is an offender who follows the most common delinquent trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes.
  34. Some biosocial experts believe that females are more aggressive because they have evolved that way to secure more mates.
  35. Liberal feminists hold that gender inequality stems from the unequal power of men and women.
  36. Which of the following statements about female violence is false?
  37. According to _____ theory, gender differences in delinquency rates are a function of class differences that influence family life.
  38. According to Bem’s _____, our culture polarizes males and females by forcing them to obey mutually exclusive gender roles, or “scripts.”
  39. In her study of gang girls in East Los Angeles, Moore found that close to _____ percent of the girls she interviewed were afraid of their fathers.
  40. There are some neurological differences between males and females; females are _____-brain oriented while males are _____-brain oriented.

Other sets

  1. Nineteenth‐century reformers, known as _____, developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned with control of the poor than with their welfare.
  2. Most states define minor child as an individual who falls under a statutory age limit, most commonly thirteen years of age.
  3. State control over a child’s noncriminal behavior supports the parens patriae philosophy, because it is assumed to be in the best interests of the child.
  4. About 5.5 million youths are arrested each year.
  5. A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is:
  6. Adults 25 years of age and older with less than a high school diploma earn ______ percent less than those who have earned a high school diploma.
  7. The NCVS is a household survey of offenders that measures the nature of the crime and the characteristics of the offenders.
  8. Official arrest statistics indicate that European American youths are arrested for a disproportionate share of arson and alcohol‐related violations.
  9. Most self‐report studies indicate that the number of children who break the law is far smaller than official statistics would lead us to believe.
  10. Manslaughter and forcible rape are examples of part II offenses.
  11. In 2008, juveniles accounted for 1% of all arrests for part I offenses.
  12. According to the text, girls are more likely than boys to be arrested as runaways.
  13. Research shows that children with conduct disorder are frequently involved in bullying, fighting, committing sexual assaults, and behaving cruelly toward animals.
  14. According to the concept of _____, if offenders are punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their illegal acts.
  15. According to the text, behaviorism was popularized by Harvard professor:
  16. Cognitive theory contends that the choice to commit delinquent acts can be controlled by the threat of punishment; if people believe illegal behavior will result in severe sanctions, they will choose not to commit crimes.
  17. A psychological condition producing mood swings between wild elation and deep depression is called:
  18. According to routine activity theory, elderly women have the highest crime victim rates because they are seen as suitable targets for crime.
  19. Children with ADHD are more likely to use illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes in adolescence.
  20. Though national dropout rates are in decline, European American students have little more than a 50:50 chance of finishing high school with a diploma.
  21. Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?
  22. Which of the following theories centers around a view of society in which an elite class uses the law as a means of meeting threats to its status?
  23. “Delinquency is a result of youths’ desire to conform to lower‐class neighbourhood values that conflict with those of the larger society.” This statement most closely reflects:
  24. The _____ theories tie delinquency rates to socioeconomic conditions and cultural values; areas that experience high levels of poverty and social disorganization will also have high delinquency rates.
  25. The social structure theories tie delinquency rates to all of the following except:
  26. The concept of social disorganization was first recognized by sociologists:
  27. The _____, identified by Loeber and his associates, begins at an early age with stubborn behavior; it leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.
  28. Contemporary developmental research was inspired by the research efforts of Harvard’s _____ in the 1930s.
  29. Problem behavior syndrome advocates believe that delinquency is but one of several social problems experienced by at risk youths.
  30. In Laub and Sampson’s follow up of the Glueck study, when participants in their 60s and 70s were asked what the most important element for going straight was, they replied:
  31. The Gluecks’ research focused on _____ as a harbinger of a delinquent career.
  32. Policy‐based initiatives based on premises of _____ theory typically feature multisystematic treatment efforts designed to provide at‐risk kids with personal, social, education, and family services.
  33. By following two matched samples of delinquents and nondelinquents until they reached age sixty‐five, Laub and Sampson found that _____ delinquents died of unnatural causes compared to the nondelinquent subjects.
  34. Which of the following statements about gender differences and delinquency is false?
  35. According to the text, which of the following statements about gender and the juvenile justice system is false?
  36. Which of the following families is most likely to produce daughters whose law‐violating behaviors mirror those of their brothers?
  37. Which of the following statements is true concerning gender socializing and aggression?
  38. To illustrate support for the chivalry hypothesis, its proponents point to data showing that even though women make up about 20 percent of arrestees, they account for less than _____ percent of inmates.
  39. According to W.I. Thomas, female delinquency is linked to a wish for luxury and excitement.
  40. Moore’s study of gang girls in East Los Angeles found that about 30 percent of the females reported that family members made sexual advances towards them.
  41. Poor law legislation requiring poor and dependent children to serve apprenticeships was never passed in the United States.
  42. Running away and underage consumption of alcohol represent:
  43. According to the text, about one third of U.S. households with children experience one of three housing problems. Which of the following is not one of these three problems?
  44. According to the text, criminal laws control interpersonal or private activities and these legal actions are usually initiated by individual citizens.
  45. The Elizabethan Poor Laws of 1601 created a system of church wardens and overseers who, with the consent of justices of the peace, identified vagrant, delinquent, and neglected children and put them to work.
  46. According to Erik Erikson, role diffusion occurs when youths:
  47. Research shows that the more kids watch TV, the more often they get into violent encounters.
  48. About 70 percent of all arrests in 2008 involved white Americans.
  49. According to the text, kids who engage in the most serious forms of delinquency are more likely to be members of the upper class.
  50. Teens are less likely than their grandparents to become the victims of crimes.
  51. Crime victimization tends to be interracial.
  52. According to the text, girls are more likely than boys to be arrested as runaways.
  53. According to _____ theory, delinquency is a function of personal predispositions such as temperament, personality, hormones, or genetics.
  54. Classical criminology suggests that delinquent acts, especially violent ones, are not rational choices but uncontrollable, irrational behaviors.
  55. According to the text, delinquents do not like to travel to commit crimes.
  56. The _____ argues that the link between learning disabilities and delinquency is caused by the side effects of learning disabilities such as impulsiveness and the inability to learn from social cues.
  57. It is estimated that the average child views _____ TV murders before finishing elementary school.
  58. Beccaria and Bentham found that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them similar to our primitive ancestors
  59. hold that children will model their behavior according to the reactions they receive from others.
  60. According to social disorganization theory, all people have the potential to become delinquents, but their bonds to conventional society prevent them from violating the law.
  61. Which of the following would best describe a prevention effort advocated by a social structure theorist?
  62. This source of strain outlined by Robert Agnew is caused by experiencing child abuse, criminal victimization, school failure, and the presence of drugs and violence in the neighborhood.
  63. Which of the following statements is true?
  64. In restorative justice, the community’s obligation is to the victim of the crime and not to the offender.
  65. Which of the following theories assumes that all people have the potential to commit crimes but are kept in check by their attachments to society?
  66. In Hirschi’s social control theory, attachment, commitment, involvement, and _____ are elements of the bond to society.
  67. Being _____ is not a sign that a person has low self‐control.
  68. Policy‐based initiatives based on premises of _____ theory typically feature multisystematic treatment efforts designed to provide at‐risk kids with personal, social, education, and family services.
  69. The life course perspective contends that disruptions in life’s major transitions can be destructive and ultimately can promote criminality.
  70. Problem behavior syndrome advocates believe that delinquency is but one of several social problems experienced by at risk youths.
  71. The Gluecks’ research focused on _____ as a harbinger of a delinquent career.
  72. The authority conflict pathway, identified by Loeber and his associates, begins at an early age with stubborn behavior; it leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.
  73. The Gluecks’ research concluded that the adolescent raised in a large, single parent family of limited economic means and educational achievement was the most vulnerable to delinquency.
  74. Critical feminists argue that, as the roles of women change, so will their crime patterns.
  75. Girls fight more frequently at home with parents than do boys.
  76. Adler argued that female delinquency would be affected by:
  77. According to the _____ feminist view, male exploitation acts as a trigger for female delinquent behavior.
  78. Which of the following statements is true concerning gender socializing and aggression?
  79. According to socialization models, men are much more likely to feel distressed than women.
  80. In _____ families, fathers are the breadwinners and mothers stay home or have menial jobs.
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