_____ reliability is the extent to which raters agree in their observations.
In _____ validity, scores on the measure indicate behavior on a criterion measured at a future time.
_____ validity refers to one’s ability to accurately draw conclusions about causal relationships.
Which of the following in experimental method ensures that an extraneous variable is just as likely to aﬀect one experimental group as it is to aﬀect the other group?
In a curvilinear relationship, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other variable. Due of this type of correlation between variables, curvilinear relationship is also called a(n) _____ function.
A researcher finds that the more a song is played on the radio, the greater the liking for the song. However, she also finds that if the song is played too much, people start to dislike the song. In the context of relationship between variables, what type of relationship exists between the song and its likeness factor?
In the context of psychological research, the variable that is considered to be the eﬀect is called the _____ variable.
In the context of relationship between variables, when increases in the values of one variable are associated with both increases and decreases in the values of a second variable, what type of relationship is present between the variables?
What refers to the adequacy of the operational definition of variables?
A researcher interested in establishing that there is a causal relationship between variables is most interested in _____ validity.
Which of the following statements is true of face validity?
In the context of relationship between variables, when the graph is simply a flat line, it shows that there is _____ between the two variables.
The reactivity of a measure can be reduced by:
Which of the following is a problem with making causal statements when the nonexperimental method of study is used in research?
_____ validity is the extent to which results of a study can be generalized to other populations and settings.
To assess the reliability of a measure, Julie administers diﬀerent versions of the same test to the same individuals at two points in time. This procedure is an example of _____ reliability.
Margaret, a researcher, desires to conduct a field experiment to determine the eﬀects of a shopping mall’s ambience on consumer purchase behavior. However, she has to deal with other influencing factors such as noise, crowd, and space distribution. She desires to avoid them by using randomization. In this context, noise, crowd, and space are _____ variables. – extraneous
In the context of relationship between variables, identify a diﬀerence between negative and curvilinear relationships. – In a negative relationship, variables have an inverse relationship; whereas in a curvilinear relationship, variables can have both increase and decrease in values.
Mike takes his temperature with a thermometer three times over a ten‑minute period and observes the following measurements: 98, 106, and 89 degrees. In this context, Mike concludes that the _____ of the thermometer is _____. – reliability; low
The positive and negative signs in the Pearson product‑moment correlation coeﬃcient provide information about the: – direction of a relationship
_____ validity is the simplest indicator of construct validity of a measure. – Face
A researcher conducts an experiment to establish a relationship between a chess player’s mental stability and his performance in the game. He finds that the two have a Pearson product‑moment correlation coeﬃcient value of +1.00. This means the two variables—mental stability and performance—have a _____ relationship. – positive linear
The _____ definition of a variable is the set of procedures used to measure or manipulate it.
In the context of components of a measure, a test containing high _____ is associated with greater variability.
Alfred and Frida are movie reviewers for the local newspaper. After watching the same movie, they both assign 5 stars for the movie. Based on their ratings, it can be concluded that there is _____.
An HR executive of a company studies the eﬀect of size of project teams on the teams’ performance. He found that team size was not associated with any particular change in performance. In the context of relationship between variables, what type of relationship exists between the size of project teams and their performance?
True score and measurement error are two important components of a(n) _____.
In the context of psychological research, the variable that is considered to be the cause is called the _____ variable.
Sears, a psychologist, observes that the more time individuals spend in a department store, the more purchases they tend to make. The research method used in this study is the _____ method.
In the context of measures of reliability, correlating the total score of the first twenty questions on a test with the total score of the last twenty questions on a test is an example of _____ reliability.
_____ is an indicator of reliability based on internal consistency that provides a researcher with the average of all possible split‑half reliability coeﬃ
Exercise is a measure of physical fitness. However, exercise also correlates with good health, which is also a measure of physical fitness. This type of correlation between two measures of the same construct is an example of _____ validity.
In _____ validity, scores on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct.
Experimental control is best accomplished by:
In the context of reactivity of measures, _____ measures involve clever ways of indirectly recording a variable to reduce reactivity.
A _____ is any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that changes.
What is the diﬀerence between internal validity and external validity?
_____ refers to the consistency or stability of a measure of behavior.
A researcher investigated the relationship between length of test and grades in a western civilization course. After randomly assigning students to groups, she found that students who took longer exams received better grades than students who took shorter exams. In this scenario, the independent variable is:
Two researchers observe aggressive behaviors displayed by preschool children. The first researcher records a large number of aggressive acts displayed within a one‑hour period. The second researcher also records many aggressive acts during the same period. Since both researchers agree in their observations, it can be inferred that the research has _____ reliability.
When a nonexperimental method is used for a study, there is a danger that no causal relationship exists between the two variables being studied. This phenomenon is known as a(n) _____ relationship.
Using the nonexperimental method, a researcher collects data on exercise and anxiety from a number of people and finds that exercise is negatively related to anxiety—that is, the people who exercise more tend to have lower levels of anxiety. What does this scenario demonstrate?
Which statement accurately differentiates face validity and discriminant validity?
Face validity refers to whether or not the measure:
In the context of relationship between variables, increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable in a _____ relationship.
Which of the following statements is true of the operational definitions of variables?
Alan is attentive to customers when his supervisor is present but inattentive when his supervisor is absent. In this scenario, Alan’s behavior exemplifies
Personal attributes such as gender, nationality, and age are also called _____ variables.
A study has high _____ validity when strong inferences can be made that one variable caused changes in the other variable.
Jim, a psychiatrist, is developing a method to study mood swings in individuals. He asks individuals to describe the frequency and intensity of mood swings and rates them on a scale of 1 to 10. He desires to develop treatment plan according to average outcomes of frequency and intensity of mood swings. In this context, Jim is trying to _____ the variable “mood swing.”
To find out the most popular health drinks among consumers, a researcher indirectly measures the frequency at which a supermarket purchases a particular health drink. The measurement is based on the idea that the most popular health drinks are the ones more frequently bought by the supermarket. In this context, the researcher is using a(n) _____ measure to reduce reactivity.
In the context of scales of measurement, _____ scales have an absolute zero point that indicates absence of the variable being measured.
Cohen’s kappa is a commonly used indicator of _____ reliability.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of using field experiments?
In the context of scales of measurement, the Celsius measure on a household thermometer scale is an example of a(n) _____ scale.
To study the effect of workplace lighting on employee productivity, a researcher first manipulates the amount of lighting in a workspace and then observes its effect on a group’s productivity. In this case, the researcher is focusing on which element of inferences of cause and effect?
An advertising agency conducted a research to analyze the effects of advertising on consumer buying behavior. It was found that higher frequency of advertising resulted in more sales of the product being advertised. In this case, there is _____ relationship between the frequency of advertising and the sales of the product.
The most common correlation coefficient when discussing reliability is the _____ product‐moment correlation coefficient.
When the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable is plotted in a graph, the independent variable is always placed on the _____ axis.
In _____ validity, scores on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct.
In the context of construct validity of measures, if research finds that candidates who score high on a medical college admissions test do better in medical school than those who score low on this test, it can be inferred that the test has _____ validity.
In the context of relationship between variables, identify a difference between negative and curvilinear relationships.
When a researcher presents a graph indicating the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable, the _____ variable should appear on the vertical axis.
A food critic rates restaurants according to the quality of food, service, and atmosphere. She assigns 4 stars for excellent, 3 for good, 2 for fair, and 1 star for poor. In the context of scales of measurement, this is an example of a(n) _____ scale.
What is the difference between experimental and nonexperimental methods of study?
In the context of different methods of study, identify the primary advantage of field experiments over laboratory experiments.
What is the difference between internal validity and external validity?
In the context of Pearson product‐moment correlation coefficient, the closer a correlation is to 1.00, the _____ is the relationship between two variables.