## PSYC 255 Quiz 4 Liberty University

PSYC 255 Quiz Experimental Research Methods, Participants, Internal Validity

1. In a _____________ probability sampling procedure, all individuals in a population have an equal probability of being selected.
2. When using _____________, the probability of being selected for participation changes with each selection of a participant.
3. In order to combat any threats to internal validity during sampling procedures, researchers should use
4. When two population overlap minimally on a dependent variable, they are said to have a(n) _____________ effect size.
5. A researcher who places all potential participants for a study in a hat and randomly draws names for inclusion in their study is using a _____________ probability sampling procedure.
6. While selecting participants for her study, Jamie draws names from a hat to place participants in groups. Once the participant’s name has been selected, she does not put it back in the hat. Jamie is using
7. Which of the following is a type of probability sampling procedure?
8. A(n) _____________ is a group of people representative of the population who are selected to participate in the research.
9. The number of individuals that are selected to participate or that participate in a study is known as the
10. A probability sampling technique in which a researcher begins by identifying subgroups and then randomly samples from each group is called _____________ probability sampling.
11. Which of the following is a type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
12. Ingrid has begun work on a research project. She has decided to recruit participants from General Psychology classes. However, she plans to make sure that her sample matches the university population in terms of ethnicity (i.e., 53% should be Caucasian, 25% should be African American, and 22% should be Hispanic American). Ingrid is planning to use which nonprobability sampling procedure?
13. Which of the following statements accurately describes the use of double-blind studies?
14. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the similarities between extraneous and nuisance variables?
15. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to changes in how the dependent variable was measured, _________ is a threat to internal validity.
16. Research should be designed to _________ for nuisance and extraneous variables.
17. variables are variables that influence all participants and cause the experimental results to be less clear.
18. variables are not controlled for in the experiment but may have an influence on the dependent variable because they vary with the levels of the independent variables.
19. A __________ is an inert substance.
20. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the differences between extraneous and nuisance variables?
21. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to internal changes within the participant that occurred over time, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
22. Which of the following threats to internal validity would be of concern if an outbreak of salmonella in peanut butter occurred while a study was being conducted on perceptions of peanut butter?
23. validity is confidence in saying that the independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable.
24. Which of the following statements regarding threats to internal validity is correct?
25. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to an event occurring sometime during the research study, and beyond the researcher’s control, _________ is a threat to internal validity.

Other sets

1. Since it is not always possible to study an entire population of individuals, researchers will typically use a(n)
2. The two main sampling techniques that researchers use are _____________ sampling and _____________ sampling.
3. In a _____________ sampling procedure, each individual in a population has a known probability (or chance) of being selected for a study.
4. Which of the following is not one of the types of probability sampling procedures?
5. In Kevin’s study, he knows that each participant had an equal probability of being placed into each of his conditions. Kevin must have used
6. Lindsay is getting ready to conduct her study. She is aiming to get 100 participants to take her survey. Lindsay’s goal of 100 participants represents her
7. Aaron has just finished collecting data for his study. He has a total of 85 participants. The number of participants in his study is known as the
8. A(n) _____________ is a group of people representative of the population who are selected to participate in the research.
9. When using _____________, the probability of being selected for participation changes with each selection of a participant.
10. After analyzing her data, Faith has found that her power level for her analyses is .80. Faith’s power is considered to be
11. Which of the following methods could be used in a simple probability sampling procedure?
12. Which of the following is not one of the types of probability sampling procedures?
13. __ validity is confidence in saying that the independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable.
14. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to internal changes within the participant that occurred over time, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
15. Imagine a study where participants were given Jell-O shots to consume before participating in experiments where reaction time was measured. However, to the participants’ surprise, the Jell-O shots were not made with alcohol. When the participants were debriefed and told that the Jell-O contained no alcohol, some participants refused to drive home until they had sobered up. The participants’ responses indicate that __________ was a threat to internal validity.
16. Reflect on the Are You Equipped Now? section at the end of chapter 9. What if some of the participants dropped out of the experiment before the end because it was not working to alleviate pain? This question is associated with which of the following threats to internal validity?
17. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants’ familiarity with the test, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
18. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the similarities between extraneous and nuisance variables?
19. variables are not controlled for in the experiment but may have an influence on the dependent variable because they vary with the levels of the independent variables.
20. Have you ever played a video game breaking the all-time high score only to find that you were never able to duplicate that performance? This is an example of _________, which is a threat to internal validity.
21. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to an event occurring sometime during the research study, and beyond the researcher’s control, _________ is a threat to internal validity.
22. Which of the following statements accurately describes the use of double-blind studies?
23. Reflect on the Are You Equipped Now? section at the end of chapter 9. It may be such that participants wanted so strongly for this new treatment to work that they experienced pain relief. If this did indeed occur, which of the following was a threat to internal validity?
24. Chapter 9 outlined ____ questions that you can ask yourself to determine if threats to internal validity are present in a study.
25. Which of the following statements regarding threats to internal validity is correct?

### Set 1

1. Random sampling in which every kth person is selected for participation in a study is called
2. By selecting a convenience sample that is comprised of subgroups similar in number to a population, you are using a sampling procedure.
3. Which of the following is a type of probability sampling procedure?
4. A sample in which not everyone in the population has an equal or known chance of being selected is called a
5. A sampling procedure occurs when not all individuals within a population have an equal likelihood or known probability of being selected.
6. Studies conducted at most universities that use General Psychology students employ which nonprobability sampling procedure?
7. When placing participants into conditions or groups for a study, researchers should use
8. A probability sampling technique in which a researcher begins by identifying subgroups and then randomly samples from each group is called probability sampling.
9. Stefani has identifed several subgroups of individuals from the population she is studying. Stefani plans on randomly sampling participants from each of these subgroups. Stefani is using probability sampling.
10. In a sampling procedure, each individual in a population has a known probability (or chance) of being selected for a study.
11. A nonprobability sampling procedure where participants are selected based on their availability or willingness to participate is called a sampling procedure.
12. A probability sampling technique in which a researcher identifes naturally occurring clusters of individuals from a population to select from is called probability sampling.
13. Aaron has just fnished collecting data for his study. He has a total of 85 participants. The number of participants in his study is known as the .
14. Which of the following methods could be used in a simple probability sampling procedure?
15. Linda is conducting a survey to evaluate the eating habits of customers at fast food restaurants. She knows that people eat at the restaurant for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Therefore, she plans to randomly sample participants from each of these groups. This process is known as probability sampling.
16. Have you ever played a video game breaking the all-time high score only to fnd that you were never able to duplicate that performance? This is an example of , which is a threat to internal validity.
17. Threats to internal validity are threats to saying .
18. Which of the following statements regarding threats to internal validity is correct?
19. Psychological studies involve the use of many variables. Which of the following variables could bias research fndings?
20. When the change in the dependent variable could be due to extreme scores moving to the mean on subsequent testing, is a threat to internal validity.
21. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants in one group talking to participants in another group, is a threat to internal validity.
22. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants systematically dropping out of an experiment, is a threat to internal validity.
23. In a study, neither the participant nor the researcher knows which group a particular participants has been assigned.
24. Reflect on the Are You Equipped Now? section at the end of chapter 9. If the decrease in pain reported by participants was due to internal changes that occurred within the participant over a three-month time period, which of the following was a threat to internal validity?
25. variables are variables that influence all participants and cause the experimental results to be less clear.
26. Reflect on the Are You Equipped Now? section at the end of chapter 9. It may be such that participants wanted so strongly for this new treatment to work that they experienced pain relief. If this did indeed occur, which of the following was a threat to internal validity?
27. Which of the following threats to internal validity would be of concern if an outbreak of salmonella in peanut butter occurred while a study was being conducted on perceptions of peanut butter?
28. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to internal changes within the participant that occurred over time, is a threat to internal validity.
29. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to changes in how the dependent variable was measured, is a threat to internal validity.
30. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to an event occurring sometime during the research study, and beyond the researcher’s control, is a threat to internal validity.

### Set 2

1. In Kevin’s study, he knows that each participant had an equal probability of being placed into each of his conditions. Kevin must have used _____________.
2. In a study, Chris selected individuals by drawing names from a hat.  Chris chooses one at a time and with each individual selected, he replaces the individual’s name back in the hat before selecting the next individual.  Chris is using _____________.
3. Linda is conducting a survey to evaluate the eating habits of customers at fast food restaurants.  She knows that people eat at the restaurant for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.  Therefore, she plans to randomly sample participants from each of these groups.  This process is known as _____________ probability sampling.
4. Which of the following is a type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
5. After analyzing her data, Faith has found that her power level for her analyses is .80.  Faith’s power is considered to be _____________.
6. Studies conducted at most universities that use General Psychology students employ which nonprobability sampling procedure?
7. Which of the following is nota type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
8. The number of individuals that are selected to participate or that participate in a study is known as the _____________.
9. In order to combat any threats to internal validity during sampling procedures, researchers should use _____________.
10. The two main sampling techniques that researchers use are _____________ sampling and _____________ sampling.
11. When two populations overlap greatly on a dependent variable, they are said to have a(n) _____________ effect size.
12. A nonprobability sampling procedure where a sample is acquired by a referral process among similar individuals is called a _____________ sampling procedure.
13. The entire group of individuals in which you are interested in studying is called the _____________.
14. Which of the following methods could be used in a simple probability sampling procedure?
15. A _____________ sampling procedure occurs when not all individuals within a population have an equal likelihood or known probability of being selected.
16. In a ___________ study, neither the participant nor the researcher knows which group a particular participants has been assigned.
17. _________ variables are variables that influence all participants and cause the experimental results to be less clear.
18. A __________ is an inert substance.
19. Reflect on the Are You Equipped Now? section at the end of chapter 9.  It may be such that participants wanted so strongly for this new treatment to work that they experienced pain relief.  If this did indeed occur, which of the following was a threat to internal validity?
20. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to changes in how the dependent variable was measured, _________ is a threat to internal validity.
21. Which of the following threats to internal validity would be of concern if an outbreak of salmonella in peanut butter occurred while a study was being conducted on perceptions of peanut butter?
22. Research should be designed to _________ for nuisance and extraneous variables.
23. Which of the following statements accurately describes the use of double-blind studies?
24. You have just learned of survey results conducted by your university on the drinking behaviors of the college campus.  Wondering about the results, you ask yourself the following questions: how were participants selected, were participants selected depending on if they lived on or off campus, were all the participants in a sorority or fraternity, were non–traditional age students included in the survey, and were men and women equally sampled? These types of questions indicate that you are concerned about what threat to internal validity?
25. Imagine a study where participants were given Jell-O shots to consume before participating in experiments where reaction time was measured.  However, to the participants’ surprise, the Jell-O shots were not made with alcohol.  When the participants were debriefed and told that the Jell-O contained no alcohol, some participants refused to drive home until they had sobered up.  The participants’ responses indicate that __________ was a threat to internal validity.
26. Reflect on the Are You Equipped Now? section at the end of chapter 9.  What if some of the participants dropped out of the experiment before the end because it was not working to alleviate pain?  This question is associated with which of the following threats to internal validity?
27. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to how participants were picked or assigned to groups, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
28. Which of the following statements regarding threats to internal validity is correct?
29. If you and a friend watched an episode of Family Guyseparately and counted the number of violent acts, you are likely to get different counts.  Which threat to internal validity explains these results?
30. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants in one group talking to participants in another group, __________ is a threat to internal validity.

### Set 3

1. Stefani has identified several subgroups of individuals from the population she is studying.  Stefani plans on randomly sampling participants from each of these subgroups.  Stefani is using _____________ probability sampling.
2. Using the content in the textbook, _____________ is to nonprobabilitysampling as _____________ is to probability sampling.
3. According to Cohen (1965), what should be the baseline level for power?
4. Samantha is conducting a survey to evaluate the eating habits of customers at fast food restaurants.  She select the first 50 customers during the day as her participants.  Samantha is using a _____________ sample.
5. In order to secure participants for his study, Jason uses class rosters from instructors.  Jason selects every 5thperson on the instructor’s class rosters for participation in his experiment.  Jason is using _____________ sampling.
6. The two main sampling techniques that researchers use are _____________ sampling and _____________ sampling.
7. After analyzing her data, Faith has found that her power level for her analyses is .80.  Faith’s power is considered to be _____________.
8. Which of the following is an example of systematic probability sampling?
9. A researcher who places all potential participants for a study in a hat and randomly draws names for inclusion in their study is using a _____________ probability sampling procedure.
10. When two population overlap minimally on a dependent variable, they are said to have a(n) _____________ effect size.
11. Which of the following is nota type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
12. In a study, Chris selected individuals by drawing names from a hat.  Chris chooses one at a time and with each individual selected, he replaces the individual’s name back in the hat before selecting the next individual.  Chris is using _____________.
13. Which of the following methods could be used in a simple probability sampling procedure?
14. The number of individuals that are selected to participate or that participate in a study is known as the _____________.
15. Which of the following is a type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
16. Imagine a study where participants were given Jell-O shots to consume before participating in experiments where reaction time was measured.  However, to the participants’ surprise, the Jell-O shots were not made with alcohol.  When the participants were debriefed and told that the Jell-O contained no alcohol, some participants refused to drive home until they had sobered up.  The participants’ responses indicate that __________ was a threat to internal validity.
17. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to internal changes within the participant that occurred over time, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
18. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants systematically dropping out of an experiment, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
19. Have you ever played a video game breaking the all-time high score only to find that you were never able to duplicate that performance? This is an example of _________, which is a threat to internal validity.
20. You have just learned of survey results conducted by your university on the drinking behaviors of the college campus.  Wondering about the results, you ask yourself the following questions: how were participants selected, were participants selected depending on if they lived on or off campus, were all the participants in a sorority or fraternity, were non–traditional age students included in the survey, and were men and women equally sampled? These types of questions indicate that you are concerned about what threat to internal validity?
21. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to how participants were picked or assigned to groups, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
22. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to the researcher somehow letting the participant know how s/he (the researcher) wants the participant to respond, or somehow the participant comes up with an idea as to how s/he (the participant) should respond,  __________ is a threat to internal validity.
23. Think about the American Idolexample in the Are You Equipped? section at the beginning of chapter 9.  By the judges giving their expert opinions on contestants’ performances, they are communicating to the audience how it should vote.  Thus, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
24. _________ variables are not controlled for in the experiment but may have an influence on the dependent variable because they vary with the levels of the independent variables.
25. Which of the following threats to internal validity would be of concern if an outbreak of salmonella in peanut butter occurred while a study was being conducted on perceptions of peanut butter?
26. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to changes in how the dependent variable was measured, _________ is a threat to internal validity.
27. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the similarities between extraneous and nuisance variables?
28. Chapter 9 begins with an example regarding the TV show American Idol.  The format of the show allows viewers to watch performances and, after hearing reviews of the judges, call in to vote for their favorite performer.  The judges providing feedback before viewers vote could be a problem because __________.
29. If you and a friend watched an episode of Family Guyseparately and counted the number of violent acts, you are likely to get different counts.  Which threat to internal validity explains these results?
30. When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants’ familiarity with the test, __________ is a threat to internal validity.

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