PHSC 211 Midterm

PHSC 211 Midterm Liberty University

  1. Convergent plate boundaries are places where two plates are moving together.
  2. Beds, ripples and cross-beds are all examples of primary sedimentary structures.
  3. Nico Steno was an old-Earth creationist.
  4. The fossil Mesosaurus helped Alfred Wegener argue his case for Continental Drift.
  5. Shield volcanoes are typically composed of basaltic-type rocks.
  6. In order for a sedimentary rock to form, sediments must be compacted and cemented together.
  7. All metamorphic rocks exhibit foliation.
  8. Potassium-40 radioactively decays into Argon-40.
  9. Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic solids.
  10. It is common for Quartz and Olivine to be found in the same igneous rock.
  11. ____________ plate boundaries are where lithospheric plates are moving apart.
  12. The metamorphic rock evidencing a light and dark banding is called _____________.
  13. Igneous rocks evidencing mineral grains <1mm in dimension have a(n) _____________ texture.
  14. Define aphanitic, phaneritic, and pegmatitic textures in igneous rocks.
  15. List and discuss three differences between convergent and divergent plate boundaries.
  16. Which of the following is NOT a high temperature igneous mineral according to Bowen’s Reaction Series?
  17. Uranium-238 radioactively decays into _____________.
  18. The color of a mineral’s powder is known as _____________.
  19. Bituminous coal __________________.
  20. An extremely coarse-grained igneous texture (> 1 cm across) is described as _______________.
  21. Which mineral exhibits one plan of cleavage?
  22. Pumice and scoria are easily identifiable because of their __________ textures.
  23. How many years pass in four Carbon-14 half-lives?
  24. If, after radioactive decay, 47 parent elements remain when you expected 50 to remain, what is your percent error?
  25. Specific gravity is ____________________.
  26. When horizontal layers have been deposited over tilted layers, the resulting unconformity is called a(n)
  27. Which of the following pairs does NOT go together?
  28. The half-life of Iodine-131 is 8 days. How much of a 100 g sample will remain after 24 days.
  29. Which of the following is NOT true of the mineral quartz?
  30. The most recent geologic period is the _____________.
  31. Mount Fuji and Mount St. Helens in the western United States are examples of __________.
  32. If a geologist correlates rocks based upon similar compositions and structures, then he has performed ________________ correlation.
  33. High-temperature metamorphism caused by molten rock coming into contact with pre-existing rock is known as ____________ metamorphism.
  34. Which of the following is a type of crystal form?
  35. Desert environments might evidence which of the following?
  36. The relative energy associated with a “rushing stream” environment of deposition is
  37. If schist undergoes additional metamorphism, it will be changed into _______________.
  38. This principle of relative dating states that in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are typically on the bottom with younger beds on top.
  39. ______________ proposed the hypothesis of continental drift while ___________ was the principal proponent for seafloor spreading.
  40. This mineral—found in oceanic basalts—aligns itself with the earth’s magnetic field lines and can be used in paleomagnetic studies.
  41. Agents of metamorphism include ______________.
  42. The Hawaiian Islands and the Emperor Seamounts were formed by ____________ volcanism.
  43. This chemical sedimentary rock is composed almost entirely of tiny calcite spheres.
  44. If 2,000 atoms of 206Pb are found in a mineral sample, then how many Helium atoms were produced?
  45. This mineral is #5 on Moh’s Hardness Scale.
  46. Which environment of deposition typically evidences poorly-sorted particles?
  47. The parent rock (i.e., precursor) of marble is _______________.
  48. Wegener’s proposed supercontinent was called _________________.
  49. Which of the following is NOT one of the non-metallic lusters?
  50. According to your lab manual, ______________________.

Set 2

  1. All metamorphic rocks exhibit foliation.
  2. It is common for Quartz and Olivine to be found in the same igneous rock.
  3. Beds, ripples and cross-beds are all examples of primary sedimentary structures.
  4. The Precambrian period is marked by reptilian fossils.
  5. Galena and Halite exhibit similar cleavage.
  6. Calcium carbonate rocks effervesce (i.e., chemically react) in the presence of hydrochloric acid.
  7. Some geologists believe the primary mechanism for plate movement is convection in the mantle.
  8. Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic solids.
  9. In order for a sedimentary rock to form, sediments must be compacted and cemented together.
  10. Hornfels is a metamorphic rock produced through contact metamorphism.
  11. When rocks are correlated based on their time of formation, this is known as
  12. The metamorphic rock evidencing a light and dark banding is called
  13. A sedimentary rock composed of broken shell fragments that are held together only loosely is called
  14. The geologic feature associated with most convergent boundaries is called a(n
  15. This is an unconformity where younger sedimentary rocks overlie older igneous ormetamorphic rocks.Which of the following is a type of crystal form?
  16. Which of the following metamorphic rocks is NOT typically foliated?
  17. Most young-Earth creationists believe that the rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras were deposited
  18. Which mineral exhibits one plan of cleavage?
  19. This mineral—found in oceanic basalts—aligns itself with the earth’s magnetic field lines and can be used in paleomagnetic studies.
  20. Which of the following is NOT true of the mineral quartz?
  21. Which of the following is NOT one of the non-metallic lusters?
  22. This mineral is #5 on Moh’s Hardness Scale.
  23. If schist undergoes additional metamorphism, it will be changed into
  24. Wegener’s proposed supercontinent was called
  25. Which of the following is NOT a type of fossil?
  26. The Hawaiian Islands and the Emperor Seamounts were formed by
  27. The half-life of Iodine-131 is 8 days. How much of a 100 g sample will remain after 24 days.
  28. If, after radioactive decay, 47 parent elements remain when you expected 50 to remain, what is your percent error?
  29. The relative energy associated with a “rushing stream” environment of deposition is .
  30. Sedimentary particles transported in one direction—like in a flowing stream—tend to produce
  31. High-temperature metamorphism caused by molten rock coming into contact with pre-existing rock is known as
  32. The most recent geologic period is the
  33. Agents of metamorphism include
  34. The Mesozoic Era is known as the Age of the
  35. This principle of relative dating states that in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are typically on the bottom with younger beds on top.
  36. The decay chain for Uranium-238 consists of decay steps.
  37. Light colored igneous rocks are described as , while dark colored igneous rocks are described as
  38. The color of a mineral’s powder is known as
  39. The first minerals to crystallize as a magma cools tend to be
  40. Desert environments might evidence which of the following?
  41. Which of the following terms is NOT associated with hydrothermal metamorphism?
  42. If a geologist correlates rocks based upon similar compositions and structures, then he has performed
  43. The parent rock (i.e., precursor) of marble is
  44. When horizontal layers have been deposited over tilted layers, the resulting unconformity is called a(n)
  45. How many years pass in four Carbon-14 half-lives?
  46. Which environment of deposition typically evidences poorly-sorted particles?
  47. Pumice and scoria are easily identifiable because of their
  48. Define aphanitic, phaneritic, and pegmatitic textures in igneous rocks.
  49. Discuss the difference between cleavage and fracture
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