PHIL 201 Quiz 4

PHIL 201 Quiz 4 Liberty University Answers

Set 1

  1. While Clifford’s form of evidentialism may have its difficulties, most contemporary epistemologists agree that it is, at the very least, not a self-defeating position, and this is part of what makes it a good option for epistemic justification.
  2. Select the one below that does NOT belong : The justification of one’s beliefs is a matter that deals with
  3. According to reliabilism, in order for a person’s belief to be rational, that person must at least:
  4. If a person thinks she has a moral responsibility to determine that any belief she holds is based on sufficient evidence, that is, evidence that strikes her as being based on indisputably good reasons or arguments, she is likely representing the epistemological position of
  5. Those holding to some form of externalism in rationality tend to argue that, since it is impossible for persons to have any cognitive access to the reasons and evidence that support some of a person’s beliefs, internalists cannot be right with respect to their account of justification for all beliefs.
  6. It is a commonly accepted fact that it is impossible to be certain about any belief
  7. Virtue epistemology generally focuses on being intellectually virtuous as opposed to being absolutely certain.
  8. Humility helps us fight against intellectual vices like pride and vanity that keep us from seeing the truth.
  9. For Aristotle, the “Golden Mean” points to fixed and universal ethical norms for all people to follow.
  10. The virtue of studiousness does not take into account the proper kinds of motives for seeking knowledge.
  11. Which is not one of the ways that Wood says moral and intellectual virtues parallel each other?
  12. Thomas Aquinas thought that moral and intellectual virtues were closely related.
  13. One of the factors that fuels skepticism is our inability to demonstrate epistemic certainty about many of the beliefs we think are true.
  14. Robert is a scientist who firmly believes in empirical truths and the physical laws of causality (e.g. when he builds a fire in his fireplace, it will produce heat), but he expresses serious reservations about the rational credibility of whether there are objective moral virtues, such as goodness, or whether such a being as the traditional God of theism does in fact exist.  In such a case, Robert is expressing a form of
  15. Among some of the reasons why unmitigated skepticism is difficult for a person to consistently hold as a serious philosophical position is because
  16. When Larry claims definitely and dogmatically that he knows  we cannot know  anything at all, he is  expressing:
  17. Which of the following is NOT commonly given by philosophers as a reason for adopting some form of skepticism:
  18. When the used car salesman tells Steve that the particular car he is considering purchasing has less than fifteen thousand actual miles on it, Steve is, quite naturally, a bit skeptical about this claim, particularly since the car is over ten years old and looks a little worse for wear.  In exhibiting this level of doubt, Steve is expressing:
  19. By “high accessibility requirements” the internalistmeans:
  20. According to externalism, there is really no way to test if one’s memories are reliable, but, in the absence of defeaters, one is reasonable in holding that they are.
  21. The doxastic assumption is:
  22. Karen says she doesn’t believe that you can ever have real knowledge.  When asked if she claims to know that as a fact, she says no, but she believes that is the case.  What category would you place her in:
  23. Clifford was a:
  24. Christopher Columbus was convinced that he discovered a route to the East Indies because it lined up with his maps and the current beliefs of his day. However, he was wrong. This example demonstrates a problem with:
  25. Explain the logical problem with W. K. Clifford’s belief that “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.”

Set 2

  1. The Aristotelian approach that Bacon critiqued was deduction.
  2. For Hume, which of the following would be a matter of fact:
  3. According to Hume, why can we never arrive at certainty?
  4. For Locke, which of the ideas below would be a complex idea:
  5. Plato’s forms exist apart from the physical objects that they represent in the world experienced by our senses.
  6. Locke divided knowledge into matters of fact and relations of ideas.
  7. The type of knowledge epistemology is primarily concerned with:
  8. The philosopher who believed we are born with innate “categories of understanding” was:
  9. The basis for Descartes knowledge of the material world was:
  10. Plato develops the traditional view of knowledge in one particular book of his. What is the title of that specific book by Plato? (Note: “Complete Works” is not the answer.)
  11. Which is not one of the ways the word “know” might be used?
  12. In order to count as knowledge, there must be some form of justification for the claim.
  13. Epistemology is concerned with all the following types of questions except:
  14. The primary problem with Thales’ view of the earth is that he lacked justification for his belief.
  15. Gettier examples are aimed at showing that JTB is not a necessary condition of truth.
  16. Definitions of truth tell us the best ways to identify truth.
  17. Anti-realist Postmodern thinkers say that reality does not exist.
  18. Which of the following is not one of the major pragmatists mentioned by Dew and Foreman?
  19. Since coherentism and pragmatism fail as definitions of truth, we should refrain form using them as tests for truth.
  20. Pragmatism is epistemologically valuable for us since it helps us test truth claims.

Set 3

  1. Which of the following represents the key difference in thought from Descartes to Bacon?
  2. Which of the following can be classified as a priori knowledge?
  3. Knowledge arrived at immediately:
  4. Plato was hesitant to build a theory of knowledge on the physical world because
  5. By “Form” Plato is referring to the particular shape of an object of experience.
  6. Nancy believes that her brother, Peter, is currently in Paris. It is true that Peter is in Paris. According to the traditional definition of knowledge, can we say that Nancy knows her brother is in Paris:
  7. Scientific anti‐realism is the view that science does not claim objects like electrons actually exist. They are just a fictional construct to explain how things work. This view fits best with which truth theory:
  8. One problem with the coherence theory of truth is that it is not linked with the real world but only systems of beliefs.
  9. According to the pointecast presentation on truth theories, Coherence is a sufficient condition for truth, but it is not a necessary condition for truth.
  10. Plato develops the traditional view of knowledge in one particular book of his. What is the title of that specific book by Plato? (Note: “Complete Works” is not the answer.)
  11. A sufficient condition is:
  12. As long as justification is present, one can be assured that he/she has real knowledge.
  13. Though there are a variety of different forms of justification, the best form is empirical evidence.
  14. The problem with “True Opinion” is that:
  15. Knowledge has traditionally been defined as Justified, true, opinion.
  16. Pragmatism is epistemologically valuable for us since it helps us test truth claims.
  17. According to Dew and Foreman, the successes of modern science give us reason to think that we can speak of truth, search for truth, and make truth claims.
  18. Since coherentism and pragmatism fail as definitions of truth, we should refrain form using them as tests for truth.
  19. Anti‐realist Postmodern thinkers say that reality does not exist.
  20. According to Dew and Foreman, the coherentist perspective of truth has enjoyed the greatest and longest amount of support throughout history.

Set 4

  1. Plato was hesitant to build a theory of knowledge on the physical world because
  2. For Hume, which of the following would be a matter of fact:
  3. Hume’s fork consisted of:
  4. The philosopher who arrived at certainty through a process of doubting all of his knowledge was:
  5. Plato’s forms exist apart from the physical objects that they represent in the world experienced by our senses.
  6. The book by Plato from which we get our traditional definition of knowledge:
  7. Locke divided knowledge into matters of fact and relations of ideas.
  8. By “noumena” Kant is referring to
  9. The type of knowledge epistemology is primarily concerned with:
  10. The philosopher who believed we are born with innate “categories of understanding” was:
  11. The problem with “True Opinion” is that:
  12. The primary problem with Thales’ view of the earth is that he lacked justification for his belief.
  13. Gettier examples are aimed at showing that JTB is not a necessary condition of truth.
  14. Epistemology might is best described as “the study of Knowledge.”
  15. Gettier Problems show that:
  16. Anti‐realist Postmodern thinkers say that reality does not exist.
  17. Which of the following is not one of the major pragmatists mentioned by Dew and Foreman?
  18. Solipsism has difficulty explaining how truth claims help us do science and exploration.
  19. Pragmatism is epistemologically valuable for us since it helps us test truth claims.
  20. Pragmatist theories of truth focus mostly how well a set of belief “work” for a particular person.
  21. According to Dew & Foreman, faith is one of the sources of knowledge.
  22. Plato holds that we obtain knowledge:
  23. Descartes believed that all men were born a tabula rasa.
  24. The philosopher who arrived at certainty through a process of doubting all of his knowledge was:
  25. For Plato, the realm where things are constantly in a flux and changing is:
  26. According to Plato, the process by which we know things in the world is called:
  27. Nancy believes that her brother, Peter, is currently in Paris. It is true that Peter is in Paris. According to the traditional definition of knowledge, can we say that Nancy knows her brother is in Paris:
  28. The philosopher who believed we are born with innate “categories of understanding” was:
  29. Rationalism holds that all knowledge is arrived at through the reason and rejects any use of the senses at all.
  30. The elements of a proposition include:
  31. Epistemology is concerned with all the following types of questions except:
  32. In response to the Gettier Problem, Keith Lerher and Thomas Paxson revise JTB as:
  33. Dew and Foreman claim that one minor concern with JTB is that the line between justification and truth seems a bit vague.
  34. We should study epistemology so that we can find confidence on the biggest questions of life.
  35. A sufficient condition is:
  36. According to Dew and Foreman, the coherentist perspective of truth has enjoyed the greatest and longest amount of support throughout history.
  37. Postmodern anti‐realism argues that our perception comes to us through the subjective filters of our minds.
  38. In coherentist theories of truth, the primary concern is how well (or consistently) one belief fits with all the other beliefs within the system.
  39. Pragmatism faces all of the following problems except:
  40. According to Dew and Foreman, the successes of modern science give us reason to think that we can speak of truth, search for truth, and make truth claims.
  41. The philosopher who arrived at certainty through a process of doubting all of his knowledge was:
  42. The Aristotelian approach that Bacon critiqued was deduction.
  43. Plato was hesitant to build a theory of knowledge on the physical world because
  44. For Hume, which of the following would be a matter of fact:
  45. Which of the following can be classified as a priori knowledge?
  46. The basis for Descartes knowledge of the material world was:
  47. Locke divided knowledge into matters of fact and relations of ideas.
  48. By “noumena” Kant is referring to
  49. The philosopher who believed we are born with innate “categories of understanding” was:
  50. The book by Plato from which we get our traditional definition of knowledge:
  51. Knowledge has traditionally been defined as Justified, true, opinion.
  52. A sufficient condition is:
  53. We should study epistemology so that we can find confidence on the biggest questions of life.
  54. A ______________ is something we hold to be true.
  55. Gettier Problems show that:
  56. In coherentist theories of truth, the primary concern is how well (or consistently) one belief fits with all the other beliefs within the system.
  57. Coherentism uses which metaphor to illustrate how our beliefs relate to each other?
  58. The correspondence theory of truth holds that statements are true when they correspond to the real state of affairs in the world.
  59. Which of the following has been the dominant theory of truth for most of history?
  60. Definitions of truth tell us the best ways to identify truth.
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