PHIL 201 Quiz 4

PHIL 201 Quiz 4 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. Those holding to some form of externalism in rationality tend to argue that, since it is impossible for persons to have any cognitive access to the reasons and evidence that support some of a person’s beliefs, internalists cannot be right with respect to their account of justification for all beliefs.
  2. If an individual is an externalist in terms of epistemic warrant, then that person thinks that
  3. If a person thinks she has a moral responsibility to determine that any belief she holds is based on sufficient evidence, that is, evidence that strikes her as being based on indisputably good reasons or arguments, she is likely representing the epistemological position of
  4. Coherentism is a position in epistemic justification which holds that
  5. My belief is a justified belief if and only if it is, in fact, a true belief.
  6. Select the one below that is NOT a  difficulty with W.K. Clifford’s approach to evidentialism
  7. Aristotle said that virtue is the “mean between two vices, one of excess and one of deficiency.”
  8. Virtue epistemologists think that intellectual virtues might help us with the Gettier problem by:
  9. Which is not one of the ways that Wood says moral and intellectual virtues parallel each other?
  10. Virtue epistemology generally focuses on being intellectually virtuous as opposed to being absolutely certain.
  11. Discussions of vice and virtues tend to arise within which major area of philosophy?
  12. The intellectual virtue of studiousness leads one to seek knowledge with the right kind of motives and desires.
  13. What is the point of Descartes’ evil demon argument?
  14. To say that it is impossible to have knowledge is itself a claim to knowledge, and is for that reason a self-defeating assertion.
  15. Hume thinks that, while we may assume connections of causality (i.e., every event has a cause), we never actually perceive a necessary connection of causality and therefore we cannot know a causal connection has actually occurred.
  16. When Larry claims definitely and dogmatically that he knows  we cannot know  anything at all, he is  expressing:
  17. Rather than having certainty about our beliefs, it is more likely that we have varying degrees of rational support for our beliefs.
  18. When the used car salesman tells Steve that the particular car he is considering purchasing has less than fifteen thousand actual miles on it, Steve is, quite naturally, a bit skeptical about this claim, particularly since the car is over ten years old and looks a little worse for wear.  In exhibiting this level of doubt, Steve is expressing:
  19. A major criticism that internalism raises against externalism is:
  20. The motivation behind internalism is:
  21. Christopher Columbus was convinced that he discovered a route to the East Indies because it lined up with his maps and the current beliefs of his day. However, he was wrong. This example demonstrates a problem with:
  22. Karen says she doesn’t believe that you can ever have real knowledge.  When asked if she claims to know that as a fact, she says no, but she believes that is the case.  What category would you place her in:
  23. David Hume was a:
  24. The answers to the skeptical challenge suggested in the pointecast presentation include:
  25. Explain the logical problem with W. K. Clifford’s belief that “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.”

Set 2

  1. While Clifford’s form of evidentialism may have its difficulties, most contemporary epistemologists agree that it is, at the very least, not a self-defeating position, and this is part of what makes it a good option for epistemic justification.
  2. Select the one below that does NOT belong : The justification of one’s beliefs is a matter that deals with
  3. According to reliabilism, in order for a person’s belief to be rational, that person must at least:
  4. If a person thinks she has a moral responsibility to determine that any belief she holds is based on sufficient evidence, that is, evidence that strikes her as being based on indisputably good reasons or arguments, she is likely representing the epistemological position of
  5. Those holding to some form of externalism in rationality tend to argue that, since it is impossible for persons to have any cognitive access to the reasons and evidence that support some of a person’s beliefs, internalists cannot be right with respect to their account of justification for all beliefs.
  6. It is a commonly accepted fact that it is impossible to be certain about any belief
  7. Virtue epistemology generally focuses on being intellectually virtuous as opposed to being absolutely certain.
  8. Humility helps us fight against intellectual vices like pride and vanity that keep us from seeing the truth.
  9. For Aristotle, the “Golden Mean” points to fixed and universal ethical norms for all people to follow.
  10. The virtue of studiousness does not take into account the proper kinds of motives for seeking knowledge.
  11. Which is not one of the ways that Wood says moral and intellectual virtues parallel each other?
  12. Thomas Aquinas thought that moral and intellectual virtues were closely related.
  13. One of the factors that fuels skepticism is our inability to demonstrate epistemic certainty about many of the beliefs we think are true.
  14. Robert is a scientist who firmly believes in empirical truths and the physical laws of causality (e.g. when he builds a fire in his fireplace, it will produce heat), but he expresses serious reservations about the rational credibility of whether there are objective moral virtues, such as goodness, or whether such a being as the traditional God of theism does in fact exist.  In such a case, Robert is expressing a form of
  15. Among some of the reasons why unmitigated skepticism is difficult for a person to consistently hold as a serious philosophical position is because
  16. When Larry claims definitely and dogmatically that he knows  we cannot know  anything at all, he is  expressing:
  17. Which of the following is NOT commonly given by philosophers as a reason for adopting some form of skepticism:
  18. When the used car salesman tells Steve that the particular car he is considering purchasing has less than fifteen thousand actual miles on it, Steve is, quite naturally, a bit skeptical about this claim, particularly since the car is over ten years old and looks a little worse for wear.  In exhibiting this level of doubt, Steve is expressing:
  19. By “high accessibility requirements” the internalistmeans:
  20. According to externalism, there is really no way to test if one’s memories are reliable, but, in the absence of defeaters, one is reasonable in holding that they are.
  21. The doxastic assumption is:
  22. Karen says she doesn’t believe that you can ever have real knowledge.  When asked if she claims to know that as a fact, she says no, but she believes that is the case.  What category would you place her in:
  23. Clifford was a:
  24. Christopher Columbus was convinced that he discovered a route to the East Indies because it lined up with his maps and the current beliefs of his day. However, he was wrong. This example demonstrates a problem with:
  25. Explain the logical problem with W. K. Clifford’s belief that “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.”

Set 3

  1. Coherentism in epistemology is a position which holds that a
    particular belief is justified for a person so long as that belief is consistent with everything else that person holds to be true.
  2. Externalism in epistemology is an approach to rationality which argues that
  3. Those holding to some form of externalism in rationality tend to argue that, since it is impossible for persons to have any cognitive access to the reasons and evidence that support some of a person’s beliefs, internalists cannot be right with respect to their account of justification for all beliefs.
  4. If a person thinks she has a moral responsibility to determine that any belief she holds is based on sufficient evidence, that is, evidence that strikes her as being based on indisputably good reasons or arguments, she is likely representing the epistemological position of
  5. Select the one below that does NOT belong: To suggest that a person’s approach to justification is internalist is to suggest that
  6. Select the one below that is NOT a  difficulty with W.K. Clifford’s approach to evidentialism
  7. Which of the following is not one of Aristotle’s virtues mentioned by Dew & Foreman?
  8. Humility helps us fight against intellectual vices like pride and vanity that keep us from seeing the truth.
  9. Virtue epistemologists think that intellectual virtues might help us with the Gettier problem by:
  10. Epistemic humility means the same thing that it means when applied to moral issues and questions.
  11. Thomas Aquinas thought that moral and intellectual virtues were closely related.
  12. The intellectual virtue of studiousness leads one to seek knowledge with the right kind of motives and desires.
  13. According to Dew and Foreman, most rational people believe that it is extremely rarely for our senses to mislead us.
  14. One reason why certainty in knowledge is not likely a reasonable alternative to unmitigated skepticism is because
  15. Sextus Empiricus adopted a version of Pyhrro’s skepticism mainly because he believed that
  16. To say that it is impossible to have knowledge is itself a claim to knowledge, and is for that reason a self-defeating assertion.
  17. One of the philosophical benefits of skepticism is that
  18. Among some of the reasons why unmitigated skepticism is difficult for a person to consistently hold as a serious philosophical position is because
  19. The answers to the skeptical challenge suggested in the pointecast presentation include:
  20. Rene Descartes was a:
  21. Karen says she doesn’t believe that you can ever have real knowledge.  When asked if she claims to know that as a fact, she says no, but she believes that is the case.  What category would you place her in:
  22. According to externalism one must be aware of whether his cognitive processes are functioning properly or not.
  23. According to the presentation on skepticism, Descartes’ systematic doubt:
  24. When considering our noetic structure we recognize that we hold beliefs in varying degrees of strength.
  25. Explain the logical problem with W. K. Clifford’s belief that “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.”
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