ENVR 350 Quiz Business vs. Environment

ENVR 350 Quiz: Business vs. Environment Conclusions and Solutions

Module 8: Week 8

  1. Immediately after it was proposed, environmentalists thought that Clinton’s Northwest Forest Plan was insufficiently protective.
  2. One of the ways that opponents of the status quo have tried to circumvent the arduous process of changing policy in Congress is by attaching riders to appropriations and omnibus budget bills.
  3. In 1998, the spotted owl population was declining at a rate of _________ annually.
  4. According to our discussion of Adler’s (2013) “Conservative Principles for Environmental Reform,”, conservatives must have a negative and un-principled vision of environmental protection
  5. The Oregon Endangered Species Task Force, in 1973, arrived at a minimum habit recommendation of _________ acres per nest for northern spotted owls.
  6. Advocates in environmental policy contests are almost always deeply divided over ______, and how those _______ translate into political choices depends heavily on the way a problem is defined in terms of science, economics, and risk. (Please note: both blanks are same word)
  7. In the late 1980s, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service initially determined that, although declining in number, the spotted owl was not endangered.
  8. On July 1, 1993, President Bill Clinton unveiled his Northwest Forest Plan, which allowed annual timber harvests of _______ billion board feet from old-growth forests on 24.5 million acres of federal lands, down from a high of 5 billion board feet per year in 1987 and 1988.
  9. Talented leaders can greatly increase the likelihood of policy change by facilitating coalition-building, brokering compromises that defuse apparently intractable conflicts, and shepherding solutions through the decision-making process.
  10. Jonathan Adler, in the 2013 paper we discussed in this module, argues that the conventional environmental paradigm, which emphasizes prescriptive regulation and centralization of regulatory authority in the hands of the federal government, is in desperate need of overhaul.
  11. In December 1993, about four dozen scientists provided strong evidence that the survival rate of adult female spotted owls had declined _________ per year between 1985 and 1993.
  12. In the early 1990s, job-loss estimates due to protection of the northern spotted owl ranged anywhere from 13,000 to 102,757.
  13. According to Jonathan Adler (2013), a prime example of the myth of “federal government as environmental savior” involves the infamous fire on the Cuyahoga River in 1969.
  14. Even though Americans claim to value the natural environment, most appear unwilling to relinquish their energy-conserving lifestyles.
  15. Even if advocates succeed in building a supportive coalition for an environmental policy proposal, _______________ majorities large enough to enact policy change do not simply arise spontaneously in response.
  16. Immediately after it was proposed, timber advocates believed that Clinton’s Northwest Forest Plan was overly protective.
  17. Despite the dramatic reduction in logging of its habitat, spotted owl populations continued, in the late 1990s, to decline at rates faster than originally forecast in Clinton’s Northwest Forest Plan.
  18. When the spotted owl controversy erupted in the late 1980s, nearly ______ of the remaining old-growth forest was on federal land because of historically aggressive logging practices on private land.
  19. For environmentalists, it is easy to craft approaches that are palatable to mainstream interests without alienating the true believers that form the activist core.
  20. It is not surprising that environmentalists and cornucopians find themselves so frequently making their cases before a judge because the courts have always been the forum for resolving intractable value conflicts.
  21. A review of the spotted owl’s status completed in 2004 reported that between 1998 and 2003, owl numbers declined at a rate of 7.5% per year in the state of Washington.
  22. Shortly into the new Congressional Session of 1995, Sen. Larry Craig (R-Idaho) introduced a bill to slow down logging in areas where trees had been damaged by fire or insects but still retained some commercial value.
  23. One of the features of the American environmental policymaking process is the remarkable ease with which the status quo is overturned.
  24. S. federal law requires the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management to harvest trees at a sustainable pace – that is, by the time the last tree of the virgin forest is cut, the first tree of the regrown forest should be big enough to harvest.
  25. In addition to its owl protection measures, the Northwest Forest Plan provided over five years to assist workers and families in Oregon, Washington, and northern California.
  26. The U.S. Forest Service was created solely for the purpose of conserving natural resources for future generations.
  27. According to Jonathan Adler (2013), when property rights are well-defined and secure, the tragedy of the commons is less likely to occur because each owner is motivated to practice good stewardship of the resource, thereby benefiting themselves and the entire community over the long haul.
  28. As judges began imposing injunctions in response to environmentalists’ lawsuits, timber harvests on federal lands in Washington and Oregon dropped by more than ________ between 1987 and 1992.
  29. By 1992, the spotted owl controversy had become sufficiently visible to be a campaign issue in the presidential race, and the election of _______________ buoyed environmentalists hoping to gain permanent protection for the old-growth forests.
  30. Under President Obama, the Fish & Wildlife Service dramatically expanded the amount of critical habitat for the spotted owl to _____________ acres across Washington, Oregon, and northern California.
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