CJUS 410 Exam 2

CJUS 410 Exam 2 Liberty University

Set 1

  1. Direct information in probable cause to arrest means firsthand information known to arresting officers through which of the following?
  2. ​ Which of the following is a legitimate purpose for a frisk?
  3. When police arrest a suspect based on probable cause, but then conduct a search without probable cause or a warrant, the search is called a:​
  4. What is the name of an emergency created by the need to pursue a fleeing suspect?​
  5. In what landmark case did SCOTUS rule that a knock and talk violated the Fourth Amendment?​
  6. In Wyoming v. Houghton, concerning the search of a passenger’s purse for drugs based on probable cause that drugs are in the vehicle, SCOTUS declared that:​
  7. Concerning third-party consent to search, in which of the following situations can one person consent to a search for the other person?​
  8. ​ The majority of arrests:
  9. ​ According to SCOTUS’s opinion in U.S. v. Montoya de Hernandez (1985), involving the detention of a traveler at the border, the standard of evidence necessary to detain a traveler at the border, beyond the scope of a routine custom search and inspection, is:
  10. In City of Indianapolis v. Edmond (2000), the Court held that drug interdiction checkpoints:​
  11. Which of the following is true of most people who consent to searches by law enforcement?​
  12. Which of the following activities cannot be conducted as a matter of routine at an international border stop?
  13. Which of the following cases involve exigent circumstances that may make entering a home to arrest a suspect without an arrest warrant reasonable?​
  14. Federal law enforcement officers can phone or radio their affidavits seeking warrants to federal magistrates under the:​
  15. Which of the following is not a requirement for obtaining a warrant to arrest a suspect at home?​
  16. Which of the following circumstances has been found sufficient by itself to amount to reasonable suspicion?​
  17. According to the SCOTUS holding in Arizona v. Gant (2009), police may search a vehicle incident to a recent occupant’s arrest, only if the arrestee is within reaching distance of the passenger compartment at the time of the search, or if:​
  18. According to the waiver test of consent:​
  19. In Wilson v. Arkansas, SCOTUS unanimously decided that:​
  20. In developing probable cause, officers rely on their _______________ to make decisions regarding arrests without warrants.​
  21. ​ Frisks are:
  22. ​ Which of the following is considered a type of hearsay information?
  23. ​ The balancing approach to reasonableness:
  24. According to the Court of Appeals decision in United States v. Rodney:​
  25. Probable cause deals with:​
  26. Which of the following usually occurs after a misdemeanor arrest?​
  27. In Tennessee v. Garner (1985), SCOTUS decided that: ​
  28. The landmark SCOTUS case Tennessee v. Garner (1985) involved the authority of police to use deadly force to stop fleeing felons. In this case, SCOTUS held that:​
  29. In California v. Acevedo (1991), SCOTUS ruled that officers with probable cause but without warrants can search containers inside vehicles:​
  30. In what case did SCOTUS hold that the Fourth Amendment authorized a police officer to make a full custodial arrest for a fine-only criminal offense occurring in the officer’s presence?​
  31. ​ The first question to ask in a Fourth Amendment case is whether the:
  32. Rules to tell officers, courts, and the rest of us what’s reasonable are called:​
  33. In building probable cause, police officers may rely on what they:​
  34. ​ In the 1960s, SCOTUS shifted away from the conventional approach to what new approach?
  35. Categorical suspicion:​
  36. ​ According to the SCOTUS opinion in Terry v. Ohio (1968), which of the following is permissible in a police stop and frisk of a citizen on a street to investigate a possible robbery?
  37. Consent that takes place when one person in fact has the legal authority to consent to a search of the home and possessions of another person is called:​
  38. ​ In Florida v. J.L. (2000), what did the court decide with regards to an anonymous tip about a man with a gun?
  39. Which of the following is not an exception to the warrant requirement approved by SCOTUS?​
  40. The vehicle exception to the warrant requirement is based upon:​
  41. Compare and define reasonable suspicion, probable cause, and proof beyond a reasonable doubt. ​
  42. Lee Harvey fired a sniper shot into several parked cars, injuring one person.  Based on the trajectory of the shots, the proximity of the building and the statements of eyewitnesses, police officers began searching rooms in a nearby apartment complex looking for the shooter.  A few hours after the shooting, the defendant’s apartment was secured and a rifle scope and ammunition was discovered.  No warrant was obtained to enter defendant’s apartment.State whether there was a lawful basis for the warrantless entry and subsequent search?

    If there was a lawful basis, state what elements were required and what facts, if any, support your conclusion.

Set 2

  1. The totality-of-facts-and-circumstances test is also known as the:
  2. Which of the following circumstances provides the most support for an automatic frisk?
  3. Which of the following circumstances provides the most support for an automatic frisk?
  4. According to SCOTUS in Michigan v. Sitz (1990), involving sobriety checkpoints, detaining a car briefly at a sobriety checkpoint:
  5. According to SCOTUS in Michigan v. Sitz (1990), involving sobriety checkpoints, detaining a car briefly at a sobriety checkpoint requires:
  6. In Illinois v. Rodriguez (1990), the police conducted the consent search of the suspect’s apartment based on the consent of the suspect’s former girlfriend. According to the apparent authority of third-party consent theory:
  7. Which of the following will not support stopping vehicles at a roadblock?
  8. In Knowles v. Iowa, concerning an instance where a driver had been given a citation for speeding but had not been arrested, SCOTUS held that:
  9. Which of the following usually occurs after a misdemeanor arrest?
  10. The majority of arrests:
  11. In City of Indianapolis v. Edmond (2000), the Court held that drug interdiction checkpoints:
  12. The following are all examples of emergency search situations, except:
  13. Who determines the ultimate legitimacy of a request for an arrest warrant?
  14. According to the SCOTUS opinion in Terry v. Ohio (1968), a stop justified at its beginning can:
  15. Firsthand information is also called:
  16. In California v. Acevedo (1991), SCOTUS ruled that officers with probable cause but without warrants can search containers inside vehicles:
  17. Which of the following activities cannot be conducted as a matter of routine at an international border stop?
  1. Rules to tell officers, courts, and the rest of us what’s reasonable are called:
  2. In the 1960s, SCOTUS shifted away from the conventional approach to what new approach?
  3. Which of the following cases involve exigent circumstances that may make entering a home to arrest a suspect without an arrest warrant reasonable?
  4. Immediately after an arrest, police officers may use force for which of the following?
  5. In Maryland v. Wilson (1997), the case in which police removed and detained a passenger from a lawfully stopped vehicle, SCOTUS held that:
  6. Stops differ from arrests in that:
  7. According to the SCOTUS opinion in Tennessee v. Garner, involving the use of deadly force to apprehend a fleeing burglary suspect, deadly force:
  8. Which of the following is not a requirement for obtaining a warrant to arrest a suspect at home?
  9. The case of Michigan v. Sitz (1990) challenged the constitutionality of:
  10. The Fourth Amendment requires that a magistrate base a probable cause determination on written information sworn to under oath, also known as:
  11. New York v. Belton (1981) extended the Chimel rule to:
  12. Reasonable suspicion needed to make a stop requires:
  13. The right to come and go as you please is known as the:
  14. When police arrest a suspect based on probable cause, but then conduct a search withoutprobable cause or a warrant, the search is called a:
  15. What case provides an excellent example of the violent crime–automatic frisk exception?
  16. What case provides an excellent example of the violent crime–automatic frisk exception?
  17. Concerning third-party consent to search, in which of the following situations can one person consent to a search for the other person?
  18. According to SCOTUS in S. v. Montoya de Hernandez (1985), involving a detention at the border for drug investigation:
  19. If an officer was specifically patting down a suspect for weapons, but came across an item in the person’s pocket that was in a shape consistent with contraband, such as narcotics, would the officer be able to seize the item and arrest the person?
  20. In Florida v. J.L. (2000), what did the court decide with regards to an anonymous tip about a man with a gun?
  21. The vast majority of arrests are made:
  22. In order to conduct a consent search of a person, an officer must have:
  23. There are two parts to the Fourth Amendment: the reasonableness clause and the:
  24. Compare and define reasonable suspicion, probable cause, and proof beyond a reasonable doubt.
  25. Lee Harvey fired a sniper shot into several parked cars, injuring one person. Based on the trajectory of the shots, the proximity of the building and the statements of eyewitnesses, police officers began searching rooms in a nearby apartment complex looking for the shooter. A few hours after the shooting, the defendant’s apartment was secured and a rifle scope and ammunition was discovered. No warrant was obtained to enter defendant’s apartment. State whether there was a lawful basis for the warrantless entry and subsequent search? If there was a lawful basis, state what elements were required and what facts, if any, support your conclusion.

Set 3

  1. The execution of search warrants is subject to
  2. Particularity is concerned with which of the following?
  3. Which of the following is NOT a type of exigency recognized by the courts that authorizes the police to act without a warrant?
  4. With regard to the scope of a search warrant, police can look:
  5. Which of the following is a requirement for a valid search incident to arrest?
  6. To define when a search takes place, which two important factors need to be considered?
  7. Which of the following individuals can be considered to have standing?
  8. After a search warrant is served, the police must:
  9. Warrants must be issued by:
  10. is necessary before the police can engage in a search.
  11. For Fourth Amendment purposes, government officials can include:
  12. The rule announced in Chimel provides that, pursuant to a valid arrest, the police may search the area “within the immediate control” of the arrestee.
  13. With regard to the probable cause showing, the officer applying for a search warrant must only show probable cause that the items to be seized are connected with criminal activity.
  14. The three most common levels of justification are probable cause, reasonable certainty, and administrative justification.
  15. With regard to a search, when does justification need to be in place?
  16. Probable cause is always required in which of the following scenarios?
  17. When may the police use deadly force while serving an arrest warrant?
  18. To which of the following sense has the plain view doctrine NOT been applied?
  19. A plain view seizure is authorized when:
  20. Title III restricts the “interception” of:
  21. Arrests require probable cause but investigatory stops only require reasonable suspicion.
  22. Which of the following is NOT a reason articulated by the Supreme Court as a reason allowing automobile searches without a warrant:
  23. Which of the following is a type of warrantless search or seizure?
  24. Which of the following is an example of enhancement device?
  25. With regard to the probable cause showing, the officer applying for an arrest warrant must simply show probable cause that the person to be arrested committed the crime.
  26. The Fourth Amendment contains which two basic clauses?
  27. Planes are considered automobiles for Fourth Amendment warrantless search purposes.
  28. When a private individual is used deliberately in place of the police, Fourth Amendment protections are triggered.
  29. A search warrant must be supported by probable cause that the:
  30. Which of the following is a common time constraint with regard to the service of search warrants?
  31. Concerning the scope of a search incident to arrest, a police officer may search:
  32. The term “person” in the Fourth Amendment can include communications.
  33. In Breithaupt v. Abram the Supreme Court upheld that warrantless intrusion (via a needle) into a person’s body for the purpose of drawing blood to see if he had been drinking.
  34. The notion that certain persons cannot object to a search or seizure is known as:
  35. A “frisk” is included in the warrantless search category.
  36. According to the Supreme Court in Michigan v. Summers, why may police lawfully detain a person without probable cause during the service of a search warrant?
  37. Exceptions to the reasonable expectation of privacy test of the Fourth Amendment’s warrant requirement:
  38. Emergency situations allowing for searches without a warrant are referred to as:
  39. Which of the following is NOT an exception to the Fourth Amendment’s warrant requirement?
  40. Automobile searches can lawfully occur without a warrant and without probable cause.
  41. What is an arrest and how does it differ from an investigatory stop?
  42. Lee Harvey fired a sniper shot into several parked cars, injuring one person. Based on the trajectory of the shots, the proximity of the building and the statements of eyewitnesses, police officers began searching rooms in nearby apartment complex looking for the shooter. A few hours after the shooting, the defendant’s apartment was secured and a rifle scope and ammunition was discovered. No warrant was obtained to enter defendant’s apartment. State whether there was a lawful basis for the warrantless entry and subsequent search?
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