What is the third question in the three main steps in Fourth Amendment analyses?
In February 2016, which company wrote a letter to its customers, stating its commitment to protecting their personal information?
What is the purpose of the case citation?
SCOTUS has not yet decided if searches of certain types of technology constitute Fourth Amendment searches. Which of the following has not been addressed by SCOTUS?
The equal justice ideal in criminal procedure refers to the impartial treatment of innocent and guilty individuals by:
In what case did the Sixth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals decide that the searches of a laptop computer, a cell phone, and a flash drive were private searches (searches conducted by private parties not associated with the government)?
What is the minimum number of U.S. District Judges in each District Court?
In what case did SCOTUS rule that, in some circumstances, there is no right to privacy in bank records?
What courts are the general trial courts of the U.S. court system?
One interpretation of selective incorporation is that:
What entity can impeach a district court judge?
In what decade did SCOTUS replace the trespass doctrine with the reasonable expectation of privacy doctrine?
In criminal matters, magistrate judges may oversee certain issues, including:
The three levels in the federal court system include the SCOTUS, the U.S. District Courts, and:
The power of a court to hear and decide cases in a specific geographical area or to deal with a specific subject is called:
Social science research attempts to assess the effectiveness of crime control practices and their effect on individual liberty and privacy, and:
The cases of Powell v. Alabama (1932) and Brown v. Mississippi (1936) established what came to be known as:
The Fourth Amendment balances the government’s power to control crime and:
The two-pronged test of privacy to determine whether a police action is actually a “search” is referred to as the:
The two landmark cases that began the federal government’s gradual entry into state criminal justice were Powell v. Alabama (1932) and:
SCOTUS has the power to manage how the lower federal courts conduct their business. This is called the Court’s:
In order to claim a violation of the equal protection clause, a claimant must prove that:
What criminal procedure ideal is best stated as avoiding two “errors of justice?”
The case of State v. Patino (2012) resulted in what conclusion from SCOTUSregarding the right to privacy in text messages?
According to SCOTUS, seizures of property occur when the government meaningfully interferes with an individual’s:
In Palko v. Connecticut (1937), what procedural issue is referenced by Justice Cardozo in his opinion concerning the applicability of the Bill of Rights to the states?
Which of the following amendments provides a defendant with the right to due process?
The first part of a writ of assistance, where royal agents can search anyone, anywhere, anytime, is referred to as a _______________ warrant.
The term “parallel rights” refers to:
Six members of what terrorist organization attacked entertainment sites in Paris on November 13, 2015?
According to the _______________, SCOTUS’s interpretation trumps the interpretation of all other courts (federal and local), of Congress, and of all state and local legislatures.
Besides notification of charges against the accused, what is the other procedural element that is required to satisfy the definition of a “fair trial” under the fundamental fairness doctrine?
From colonial times until the Civil War, criminal justice was solely the responsibility of:
According to SCOTUS, which of the following are constitutionally protected areas?
The “presumption of regularity” posits that:
Equal protection claims based on selective prosecution are difficult to prove, because claimants have to prove that the prosecutor had a discriminatory purpose and that the prosecution had:
Until 1967, SCOTUS defined searches mainly according to property law. According to the _______________, to qualify as a search, officers had to physically invade a “constitutionally protected area.”
According to the SCOTUS opinion in S. v. White (1971), involving a friend wired for sound for the police:
What is needed to establish that government action is a search?
In Kyllo v. U.S. (2001), SCOTUS ruled that the discovery and measurement of which of the following from a home was a Fourth Amendment search?
Identify and define the five different criminal procedure ideals in the real world.
Summarize the differences among the fundamental fairness, total incorporation, and selective incorporation doctrines as they influence state criminal procedures.
Factual guilt is concerned with:
The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure set forth:
Which of the following is a remedy when alleged police misconduct does not involve constitutional rights?
The appellant is someone who:
Which of the following is an argument against the exclusionary rule?
A provides a legally accepted method of rectifying police wrongdoing.
The rule that excludes additional evidence later obtained in an investigation that was the result of an initial illegal search is called the
When a previous decision is not available for a court to refer to, it will:
Legal guilt is concerned with whether a person is guilty according to:
Which of the following is a relevant constitutional amendment in criminal procedure?
The major purpose of the exclusionary rule was to:
The exclusionary rule does NOT apply in:
The Preamble to the U.S. Constitution lists the following purposes of government EXCEPT:
Nonjudicial remedies include:
An example of a legal remedy is:
At the federal level, trial courts are:
Stare decisis is a Latin term that means:
Which of the following is an argument in favor of the exclusionary rule?
The rule is an exception to the exclusionary rule.
The Sixth Amendment provides for:
Lawsuits where people seek monetary compensation are called
The most frequently discussed remedy in criminal procedure is:
Police officers act under color of law when they:
Theincorporation perspective favors incorporation of certain protections enumerated in the Bills of Rights, not all of them.
Unlike Federal judges and prosecutors, Federal law enforcement officers lack in civil rights lawsuits.
Refers to police departments investigating complaints against their officers by themselves.
Which of the following appellate decisions most closely resembles a reversal?
The Fourth Amendment protects against:
A judge avoids precedent and hands down decisions with sweeping implications for the future.
The exclusionary rule applies to violations of which United States Constitutional Amendment?
The Fifth Amendment protects against:
The primary purpose of criminal procedure is to maintain the proper balance between:
Judicial restraint refers to:
The Fourteenth Amendment’s due process clause has been interpreted to consist of which two types of due process:
The impeachment exception to the exclusionary rule allows for illegally obtained evidence to be used:
When an appellate court agrees with a lower court’s decision, it that decision.
Cities and counties can be held liable under 42 U.S.C. Section 1983 if they:
The exclusionary rule is:
The two requirements for a successful 42 U.S.C. Section 1983 lawsuit are:
At the sate level, trial courts are usually referred to as:
What is the exclusionary rule and the arguments for and against it?
Describe and distinguish the due process, crime control, and restorative justice perspectives. Make sure to provide any biblical reference.