According to the path-goal theory, a manager’s leadership style is dependent upon two contingency factors—environmental and subordinate.
The leader who is able to respond to ever-increasing levels of environmental uncertainty through the utilization of more than one style of leadership will be most likely to increase motivation, satisfaction, and productivity of employees.
According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt, managers should determine where on the continuum of leadership behavior they should position themselves, depending on:
The degree of certainty, trust, and deference between the subordinate and the leader is called:
To effectively address the variety of situations a manager faces in today’s emergent environment, it is not important that a manager function effectively at each placement on the Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s leadership continuum, but only at a few placements.
According to Bennis and Nanus (1985), leaders are people who do things right and managers are people who do the right things.
The macro perspective of leadership provides a more detailed examination of the leader, the external environment, and the situation.
Transformational leaders, often referred to as change agents, influence members through a variety of mechanisms, including but not limited to intellectual, emotional, and behavioral processes of the followers.
Symbolic leaders interpret and reinterpret experiences, developing the capacity to impart purpose and meaning.
Managers provide two important ingredients that provide an environment for groups to function and succeed: structure and content.
Research has determined the external “standards” to determine who will or will not experience high levels of stress. For example, if you are a Hispanic female with a Type A personality, you will experience high levels of stress.
An extreme case of job-related stress is known as:
Stress may be defined as a particular relationship between a person and others that is endangering his or her wellbeing.
Symptoms of burnout may include:
Stress management includes both individual-level and organization-wide interventions.
When decision quality is not important but decision acceptance is critical, then GII is the best method.
What type of bias is an intuitive technique where the perceived probability of an event is influenced by the ease of recollection?
With training, managers can use all four decision styles effectively as different situations are presented; however, individuals have a tendency to resort to a single, dominant style (for instance, default mode of decision making).
The rational model is considered the “ideal” method of decision making.
Which decision process requests specific information?
What type of negotiation is less focused on directly helping parties reach binding agreements (excluding arbitration) and is more devoted to improving the process of communication, increasing perspectives and understanding, enabling the parties to reframe their substantive goals and priorities, and engaging in more creative problem solving?
What type of intergroup conflict may occur when supervisors attempt to control subordinates?
What type of conflict occurs when the expectations associated with a work role are incompatible with the individual’s needs, values, or ethics?
The following is an example of what type of intrapersonal conflict: When an individual must choose an alternative that is expected to have both positive and negative outcomes.