Single‑case experiments were developed from a need to:
A school administrator wants to examine the eﬀect of student lockers on class tardiness. He compares tardiness records of a school with no lockers to a school with lockers. What type of research design is this?
One method used to demonstrate the reversibility of the eﬀect of the independent variable is a(n):
Regression toward the mean refers to the fact that:
A researcher asks students to record in a journal the emotions they experience every hour. She finds that over time, the descriptions become shorter and less detailed. What may be responsible for this change in performance?
An advantage of the ABAB reversal design over the ABA design is that it:
In order to study personality development, a researcher studies the same individuals at 7, 14, 21, and 30 years of age. In this case, the researcher is using the _____ method.
From an ethical viewpoint, the ABAB design is preferred over the ABA design because:
The Terman Life Cycle Study began in 1921 and tracked California schoolchildren with particular intelligent scores. This study measured aspects of the individuals’ cognitive and social development until their death. This is an example of a(n) _____.
A researcher administers a reading test to a group of fourth graders at the beginning of the school year. During the year, the students receive an intensive program designed to improve reading skills. At the end of the year, the reading test is given again and a large improvement in test scores is discovered. Identify the type of study.
In the context of reversal designs, the ABAB design:
_____ in quasi‑experimental designs is more diﬃcult than in true experiments because quasi‑experimental designs lack the important features of true experiments such as random assignment to conditions
Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of studies using one‑group pretest‑posttest design?
In one‑group pretest‑posttest design, which of the following will likely occur whenever researchers gather a set of extreme scores taken at one time and compare them with scores taken at another point in time?
Which of the following describes a sequential design?
The use of existing natural groups of participants often results in:
In the context of one‑group pretest‑posttest design and the associated threats to internal validity, any changes that occur systematically over time are called _____ effects.
Which of the following is a reversal design?
A compromise between the longitudinal and cross‑sectional methods is the _____ method.
In a multiple baseline across situations design, _____.
A human resources psychologist is interested in the effect of work schedule on job satisfaction. She compares satisfaction scores of workers who work five 8‐hour shifts with workers who work four 10‐hour shifts. What type of design has the manager employed?
When asked if he would like to taste a chocolate covered grasshopper, Anton declines. He then attends an all‐day presentation on the nutritional benefits of eating insects. At the end of the presentation, Anton is again offered a taste of a chocolate covered grasshopper and accepts. What effect may be responsible for Anton’s change in behavior?
Which one of the following is a reversal design?
You go to several elementary schools where you test students who are in the first grade, third grade, and sixth grade to examine the effect of age on a reasoning ability task. You have used the ________ method.
If exposure to an earlier measure affects behavior when a participant is measured a second time, the researcher might suspect which type of effect?
At the beginning of the term, researchers measured the attitudes of students taking a class in cross cultural communication. At the end of the term, the students’ attitudes were measured again. This is an example of a _____ design.
Causal inference in quasi‐experimental designs is _____ difficult than in true experiments because quasi‐experimental designs _____ the important features of true designs.
A study by Orth and colleagues (2010) was conducted to study the development of self‐esteem over time. They were interested in changes in self‐esteem at various ages and over time. They identified six different age cohorts (25‐34, 35‐44, 45‐54, 55‐64, 65‐74, 75+)and examined their self‐esteem ratings from 1986, 1989, 1994, and 2002. This type of design is classified as a(n) ____________.
The serious flaw associated with the nonequivalent control group design is that ____ occur.
A study is conducted in which the attitudes of the staff of one mental hospital are assessed; then the staff is exposed to an attitude change manipulation, and attitudes are assessed again. a control hospital of similar size is also chosen; attitudes there are measured and then at a later time, assessed again. This quasi experimental design is called a _____ design.
A researcher investigates the effect of weather on college students’ study habits. On a sunny day, the researcher sat in the quad and recorded the number of minutes of study per student. What is the crucial element missing in this design?
In a multiple baseline design, in order to conclude that a treatment is effective, a behavior change must be observed
Professor Briscoe finds that when he smiles and makes eye contact with Jeanne, she becomes more responsive to his questions. He tries the same behavior on David, Chris, and b.J. and finds that it also influences their responses to his questions. What type of single‐case design did Professor Briscoe employ?
Propensity score matching ________________?
Which one of the following is NOT a type of program evaluation research?
The question “Do single income families have child‐care problems different than dual income families?” would be asked in which phase of program evaluation?
Ray is comparing the heart rates of a group of former smokers to non‐smokers after they have walked on a treadmill for 15 minutes. This would be an example of a
An ABAB design may be preferred over an ABA design because
Ethan has developed a scale to measure a person’s fear of earthquakes. After the occurrence of an earthquake, he surveys 1000 individuals and finds the mean score to be 7.8 out of a possible 10 (the higher the score, the greater the fear). Ethan concludes that fear increases after people experience an earthquake. This study is an example of a:
in quasi‐experimental designs is more difficult than in true experiments because quasi‐experimental designs lack the important features of true experiments such as random assignment to conditions.
What is the advantage of the pretest in the nonequivalent control group pretest‐ posttest design?
usually occurs when participants who form the two groups in an experiment are chosen from existing natural groups.
Which of the following is a variation of the multiple baseline design?
designs address the need to study the effect of an independent variable in settings in which the control features of true experimental designs cannot be achieved.
In order to study the effects of watching violent programs on children’s aggressiveness, a researcher observes children’s behavior after they watch 30 minutes of violent programs on television. The researcher concludes that television violence causes aggressiveness. A problem in this research is that:
To examine how a reward influences a desired behavior, a mother first counts the number of times her son makes his bed over a two‐week period. For the next two weeks, she gives him a reward every time he makes his bed. Following this period, she stops rewarding him and again counts the number of times he makes his bed. This procedure would be an example of a(n) _____ design.
Amelia realized that her 7‐year‐old daughter, Violet, was especially motivated by money. Amelia began a reinforcement program whereby Violet earned 5 cents every time she brushed her teeth. A month later, Amelia instituted a payment schedule of 10 cents every time Violet went to bed on time without complaining. Once these behaviors were firmly established, Violet began earning money for every book she read. What kind of single‐subject design did Amelia employ?
Over time, human observers may become fatigued or change the standards on which observations are based. When this change in measurement occurs over time, a researcher might attribute it to
Kazbour and Bailey (2010) conducted a study to evaluate an intervention to increase the use of designated drivers in a bar. First, the researchers tracked the number of patrons serving as or being with a designated driver. The researchers then implemented a treatment to increase the use of designated drivers, and finally measured how many bar patrons used a designated driver after the intervention was removed. This is an example of a
Selection differences are less likely to occur when researchers: