Stefani has identified several subgroups of individuals from the population she is studying. Stefani plans on randomly sampling participants from each of these subgroups. Stefani is using _____________ probability sampling.
Using the content in the textbook, _____________ is to nonprobabilitysampling as _____________ is to probability sampling.
According to Cohen (1965), what should be the baseline level for power?
Samantha is conducting a survey to evaluate the eating habits of customers at fast food restaurants. She select the first 50 customers during the day as her participants. Samantha is using a _____________ sample.
In order to secure participants for his study, Jason uses class rosters from instructors. Jason selects every 5thperson on the instructor’s class rosters for participation in his experiment. Jason is using _____________ sampling.
The two main sampling techniques that researchers use are _____________ sampling and _____________ sampling.
After analyzing her data, Faith has found that her power level for her analyses is .80. Faith’s power is considered to be _____________.
Which of the following is an example of systematic probability sampling?
A researcher who places all potential participants for a study in a hat and randomly draws names for inclusion in their study is using a _____________ probability sampling procedure.
When two population overlap minimally on a dependent variable, they are said to have a(n) _____________ effect size.
Which of the following is nota type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
In a study, Chris selected individuals by drawing names from a hat. Chris chooses one at a time and with each individual selected, he replaces the individual’s name back in the hat before selecting the next individual. Chris is using _____________.
Which of the following methods could be used in a simple probability sampling procedure?
The number of individuals that are selected to participate or that participate in a study is known as the _____________.
Which of the following is a type of nonprobability sampling procedure?
Imagine a study where participants were given Jell-O shots to consume before participating in experiments where reaction time was measured. However, to the participants’ surprise, the Jell-O shots were not made with alcohol. When the participants were debriefed and told that the Jell-O contained no alcohol, some participants refused to drive home until they had sobered up. The participants’ responses indicate that __________ was a threat to internal validity.
When a change in the dependent variable could be due to internal changes within the participant that occurred over time, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants systematically dropping out of an experiment, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
Have you ever played a video game breaking the all-time high score only to find that you were never able to duplicate that performance? This is an example of _________, which is a threat to internal validity.
You have just learned of survey results conducted by your university on the drinking behaviors of the college campus. Wondering about the results, you ask yourself the following questions: how were participants selected, were participants selected depending on if they lived on or off campus, were all the participants in a sorority or fraternity, were non–traditional age students included in the survey, and were men and women equally sampled? These types of questions indicate that you are concerned about what threat to internal validity?
When a change in the dependent variable could be due to how participants were picked or assigned to groups, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
When a change in the dependent variable could be due to the researcher somehow letting the participant know how s/he (the researcher) wants the participant to respond, or somehow the participant comes up with an idea as to how s/he (the participant) should respond, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
Think about the American Idolexample in the Are You Equipped? section at the beginning of chapter 9. By the judges giving their expert opinions on contestants’ performances, they are communicating to the audience how it should vote. Thus, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
_________ variables are not controlled for in the experiment but may have an influence on the dependent variable because they vary with the levels of the independent variables.
Which of the following threats to internal validity would be of concern if an outbreak of salmonella in peanut butter occurred while a study was being conducted on perceptions of peanut butter?
When a change in the dependent variable could be due to changes in how the dependent variable was measured, _________ is a threat to internal validity.
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the similarities between extraneous and nuisance variables?
Chapter 9 begins with an example regarding the TV show American Idol. The format of the show allows viewers to watch performances and, after hearing reviews of the judges, call in to vote for their favorite performer. The judges providing feedback before viewers vote could be a problem because __________.
If you and a friend watched an episode of Family Guyseparately and counted the number of violent acts, you are likely to get different counts. Which threat to internal validity explains these results?
When a change in the dependent variable could be due to participants’ familiarity with the test, __________ is a threat to internal validity.
Other sets (combined)
If zoologists wanted to study how tigers interact with each other in their habitats, which of these research methods will they most likely use?
Salma studies historical data published by the United States Census Bureau to determine if there has been an increase in the population of African Americans over the last decade. This study is an example of a(n) _____.
If you ask teenagers to describe the behaviors of their parents that most upsets them, using the teenagers’ own words, you would be using a(n) _____ approach of data
Which of the following is an advantage of conducting a naturalistic observation?
Harvey examines baseball records to determine whether National League teams who play the final game of the World Series at home lose more often than American League teams. Which of the following archival research approaches is Harvey using in this scenario?
_____ are research tools that are used to ask people to tell us about themselves.
When researchers ask several questions about a topic, a respondent may employ a response set to agree or disagree with all the questions. Such a tendency is referred to as:
Roberto bullies his younger brother in the absence of his parents. However, when they are around, he is very aﬀectionate toward his brother. In this scenario, Roberto’s behavior best exemplifies _____.
Television documentaries in which individuals let filmmakers record their private moments are an example of _____.
Gong has developed a coding system for aggressive behaviors displayed in comic books. She had her assistants read comic books published between 1980 and 1984 and record the number of aggressive acts displayed in each comic. She also had her assistants read comic books published between 1985 and 1989 and record the number of aggressive acts displayed in them. This approach to studying aggressive behavior may best be categorized as _____.
Instead of providing true responses to questions on a survey, Ali answers in such a way that he could portray a better image of himself. This tendency of Ali to answer questions from a particular perspective is an example of:
_____ sampling has the advantage of a built‑in assurance that the sample will accurately reflect the numerical composition of the various subgroups.
In order to study changes in answers to survey questions over time, a researcher could conduct a(n) _____ study.
The _____ in a survey is simply the percentage of people in the sample who actually completed the survey.
Stacy has a diﬃcult time answering the question “Should parents increase the likelihood of desirable behaviors in their children by using reinforcement and punishment?” because it is a(n) _____ question.
The research approach in which the researcher does not actually collect original data but analyzes already existing data is called _____.
When Mrs. Gonzalez asks elementary school children to indicate the number of books they had borrowed from the school library during the past month, what type of observational method is she using?
Tracy wants to study the diﬀerent behavioral patterns displayed by the members of her organization through naturalistic participant observation. Which of the following will be true of her study?
A two‑year account of the progress of a manic‑depressive patient who is undergoing psychiatric care is an example of _____.
Observing the honking patterns and hand gestures displayed by drivers to understand aggressive driving behaviors is an example of _____ observation.
A researcher stands outside a restaurant and asks the youngsters leaving the restaurant if they enjoyed the food there. What type of sampling technique has the researcher employed?
A researcher wants to understand if people’s age and their religious a ﬃliations are related to political conservatism. To do so, he analyzes data available from the Inter University Consortium for Political and Social Research. In this case, which type of research approach is used by the researcher?
Case studies are most useful for studying:
Asking students “Does your instructor show up on time?” and requiring them to indicate their response with a “yes” or “no” is an example of a _____ question.
“Should residents of the city spend more money on parks and road improvements?” is an example of a(n) _____ question.
To study diversity in an organization, 10 employees belonging to diﬀerent departments are brought together by a psychologist to discuss their perceptions of diversity in the company. In the context of interviews, this is an example of a(n) _____.
Veronica assesses voters’ attitudes toward their likelihood of voting in the city elections by asking them to mark their preferences on a 100‑millimeter line that is anchored with “very unlikely” at one end and “very likely” at the other end. This is an example of _____ rating scale.
When conducting systematic observation, two or more raters are usually used to code behavior. In this case, reliability is indicated by:
The best method to test the hypothesis that male elephants are more socially dominant than female elephants in the wild would be a(n) _____.
_____ observation is sometimes called field work or simply field observation.
Using a 95% confidence interval, Mike reports that 48% to 52% of the population favors Proposition D. The diﬀerence between 48% and 52% reflects the _____.
A major diﬀerence between systematic observation and naturalistic observation is that systematic observation:
Daniela and Alicia are conducting a systematic observation study on children’s aggressive behavior in the playground. Daniela concludes that boys display more aggressive behaviors than do girls, whereas Alicia concludes the opposite. Which methodological issue would be of most concern in this study?
It is important to use _____ sampling when researchers want to make precise statements about a specific population on the basis of the results of their survey.
Which of the following is a nonprobability sampling technique?
In the context of response sets, a person who tries to present himself or herself in a positive way in a questionnaire is showing _____.
Which of the following is a probability sampling technique?
In a systematic observation study, two diﬀerent people use the same coding system to analyze the same videotape. The level of agreement between the two observers is then determined. Which methodological issue in systematic observation does this activity address?
What is the diﬀerence between quantitative and qualitative methods of describing behavior?
Which of the following is an advantage of convenience samples?
To test the hypothesis that younger people are more opposed to the use of nuclear energy than older people, the best method would be a(n)
What is the difference between naturalistic observation and systematic observation?
Luis studies a newspaper’s attitudes towards candidates for the position of Police Chief by counting the number of positive and negative comments attributed to each candidate. Luis’s research approach is an example of a
Sarah stands outside of a grocery store on the west side of town and surveys exiting shoppers about their preference for frozen desserts. What type of sampling technique does Sarah’s survey represent?
A researcher wants to test the assertion that pioneer women committed suicide more often than pioneer men. The appropriate method to use would be a(n)
If you are asked to choose “yes or no” for the question “Are you a full‐time student?” you have been asked a _____ question.
In systematic observation studies, reliability is indicated by
Michael examines self‐disclosure that occurs between males and females by monitoring Internet discussion groups. Which method of research does this best illustrate?
a major difference between systematic observation and naturalistic observation is systematic observation
Nancy assesses voters’ attitudes toward their likelihood to vote in the city elections by asking them to make a check on a100‐millimeter line with the anchor “very unlikely” at one end of the line and the anchor “very likely” at the other. This would be an example of which type of rating scale?
Closed ended questions
Emily is studying the effect of physical appearance on the likelihood to vote for a female candidate using volunteers from an introductory psychology class. Emily’s sampling technique best represents a
Joanne and Peter are conducting a systematic observation study on children’s aggressive playground behavior. Joanne concludes that boys display more aggressive behaviors than do girls. Peter concludes the opposite. Based on these conclusions, which methodological issue would be of most concern in this study?
As people exit the voting booth, they are asked how they voted on the various propositions on the ballot in order to predict election outcomes. This sampling method is called _____ sampling.
Probability sampling techniques are most important for
A researcher examines the accounting records of the Noren Corporation for the past five years in order to determine why the company filed for bankruptcy. This research method would best illustrate
Which method of choosing a sample of 10 people from a population of 100 is least likely to result in a random sample?
Which one of the following is a probability sampling technique?
The chair of the Psychology department is interested in Psychology majors’ attitudes toward implementing an internship as a requirement for completion of the degree. She obtains a list of all students who are psychology majors, randomly selects 100, and surveys all of the selected students. What type of sampling technique has she employed?
With simple random sampling, each member of the population has a(n) ________ probability of being sampled.
A researcher codes the nonverbal behaviors of married couples while they are discussing child rearing methods. The researcher is using
Asking students “Does your instructor show up on time and is organized?”, is an example of _______?
“The Wayne city council members should not be allowed to vote on increases in their pay” is an example of a _____ question.
_____ indicates the amount of deviation in results obtained from a sample compared to the true population value.
An advantage of participant over nonparticipant observation is
“Do you think it is important to decrease the extreme amount of money wasted on holiday decorations?” is an example of a _____ question.
Bowman has developed a coding system for aggressive behaviors displayed in comic books. She has her assistants read comic books published between 1980 and 1984 and record the number of aggressive acts displayed in each comic. She also has her assistants read comic books published between 1985 and 1989 and record the number of aggressive acts displayed. This approach to studying aggressive behavior may best be categorized as
Sylvia is interested in studying the parental behaviors displayed by sea turtles. She spends three months scuba diving off the Mexican coast observing and recording the range of behaviors that occur. This research method would best be categorized as
The question “Proposition Q proposes an increase in property tax to fund road improvement; do you agree with this proposition?” illustrates which principle of question construction?
A researcher conducted an in‐depth examination of Jack the Ripper and concluded that there are three possible reasons for why he became a mass murderer. This research approach is an example of a
When Carl responds to the questions on a questionnaire, he answers in a way that would reflect most favorably on him. Carl’s behavior best illustrates
The sampling ________ is the actual set of people who might be included in the sample after the population is defined.
A _____ sample size will _____ the size of the confidence interval.
A good naturalistic observation will support the analysis by
What are the two major sources of bias when using questionnaires or interviews?
A nonprobability sampling technique for choosing a sample that reflects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population is called
In question construction, writing questions that are easily understood illustrates
In a naturalistic observation, which of the following data‐collection techniques would a researcher be least likely to employ?
“Do you agree that male teenage drivers are more dangerous than female teenage drivers?” is an example of a _____ question.