This 48 B.C. clash between Pompey and Caesar was the climactic battle of the Roman civil war. Pompey was decisively defeated, and fled to Egypt, where he was murdered by Ptolemy XIII.
NOT true about Pompey:
Not a member of the First Triumvirate:
Consul between 104 and 100 B.C., who made important, if negative, changes in the Roman army. He reorganized the legion, and the army as a whole would now become voluntary (dropping property qualifications), professional, and politicized. Instead of soldiers being loyal to the idea of Rome, they now were loyal to individual commanders.
In 90 B.C., this Roman consul carried a bill that conferred citizenship on all Latins and Italians still loyal to Rome and to those who would at once lay down their arms.
Following Sulla’s retirement in 78 B.C., this corrupt governor of Sicily was elected Consul on a program that sought support among disaffected groups. The Senate supported his first two program points—the return of all exiles and the resumption cheap grain distributions to the poor—but refused to support his others, including the return of all confiscated properties to former owners and the restoration of power to the tribunes. He was ultimately sent to Florence, where he launched an unsuccessful rebellion.
NOT a factor in the breakdown of the First Triumvirate and the coming Roman Civil War in 49 B.C.:
NOT true about Tiberius Gracchus:
NOT a reform instituted by Julius Caesar in the 40s B.C.:
Octavian was the son of Julius Caesar and an accomplished warrior. It was his reputation as a commander and fighter that intimidated Marcus Antonius, and led to the parting of ways between the two men.
In the 140s B.C., Gauis Laelius, a friend of Scipio Aemilanus and a senator, unsuccessfully called for the restoration of the Licinio-Sextian laws of 367. What were these laws?
This politician of the Late Republic gave up his patrician status to qualify for election as tribune. A gifted orator, he, as tribune in 88 B.C., proposed a bill that enrolled new Italian citizens in the thirty-five tribes, recalled all exiles, excluded senators who owed bill in excess of 2000 denarii, and replaced Sulla with Marius as commander to fight Pontus. The bill became law but was rescinded by Sulla and his invading army.
The group of politicians in the Late Republic were more aristocratic—and the opponents of the Gracchus brothers—who avoided the masses, preferring instead to rely on the traditional political tools of family reputation, personal alliances with other aristocrats, and the marshalling of clients whose loyalty had been won by individual services. They believed they were “the best people.”
This 67 B.C. law placed enormous power in the hands of one man to deal with the pirate menace in the eastern Mediterranean.
As the Social War came to an end in 88 B.C., Rome faced another military challenge—this time from the east and this king of Pontus, who sought to roll the Romans back from the eastern Mediterranean. His threat ultimately caused great political turmoil and civil strife in Rome itself.
This label referred to the leading politicians in the Late Republic—such as the Gracchus brothers– who used and defended the powers of the popular assemblies and the popular office of tribune as a counterweight to senatorial authority and championed such economic measures as land distribution and debt cancellation. Overall, they appealed to the masses, and were considered demagogic by their elitist enemies.
In 103 B.C., this tribune (and ally of the consul, Marius) introduced a law that made it a criminal offense to compromise, injure, or diminish the honor or dignity of the Roman people. He used this vague law to prosecute unpopular nobles, and to enhance his own power. In 100 B.C., he was killed after losing equestrian support over a bill that that fixed grained prices, opened land for veterans in Gaul, and stipulated that the Senate take on oath supporting this or be fined and exiled. The content of this bill, along with his tactics, led him to lose support among equestrians, who feared he might attack private property.
What was the Italian or Social War of 90-88 B.C.?
In the 90s B.C. , optimate leaders dominated, refusing to grant land to Marius’ veterans and citizenship to Italian allies. They even expelled Italian allies from Rome, and enacted legislation that made it more difficult for populares to utilize tribunician legislation.
Tiberius Gracchus’ land reform bill was not a radical proposal based on some abstract ideology. Instead, it was rather conservative.
Which of the following is true about the rebellion of Spartacus?
In 87 B.C., this former general and consul was recalled from exile by the consul Cinna. He stormed the seaport of Ostia near Rome, cut off Rome’s food supplies, and then starved the city into surrender. He also struck down all the nobles and senator whom he hated, and left their mutilated bodies littering the streets. In 86 B.C., he was elected to a seventh consulship, but died a few days after taking office.
NOT true about Gaius Gracchus:
NOT true about Julius Caesar:
The leader of the Senate conspiracy against Caesar.
This foe to the Sulla Senatorial order launched a rebellion in Spain in the 70s B.C., hoping to restore the anti-Sulla cause and return to Rome a hero. He defeated Pompey twice, but was assassinated in 74 B.C.
Which of the following is true about the rule of Julius Caesar?
The Roman general charged with clearing the Mediterranean of pirates, and who took Jerusalem in 63 B.C., ending Jewish independence.
Tiberius Gracchus had a close and beneficial political alliance with Scipio Aemilianus.
What motivated the reforms of Tiberius Gracchus?
In 88 B.C., this general (and former aide to Marius) took Rome by force, and established a dictatorship without a time limit. He was an optimate and pro-Senate. Indeed, one of his “reforms” was to move all power from the tribunes and the Plebian Assembly, and give it to the Centuriate Assembly.
NOT true about the Jugurthine War, 112-106 B.C.?
In 43 B.C., this famed orator, lawyer, and defender of the Republic was beheaded by supporters of Antonius. Hiis head nailed to the wall of the Forum in Rome.
The First Triumvirate was a secret agreement (60 B.C.) that created a dictatorial coalition. While primarily about personal advancement, it was oriented against the optimates and the Senate.
Which of the following is true concerning the consulate of Pompey and Crassus?
This wealthy general/politician was noted for his ambition and his business savvy, particularly in the acquisition of burned property, which he would repair or rebuild for a profit. He was also largely responsible for putting down the rebellion of Spartacus, but was overshadowed by the arrival of the popular general, Pompey, near the end of the campaign.
Which of the following is true about Tiberius Gracchus’ family background?
Julius Caesar’s top aide who—despite an exaggerated reputation for boozing and bullying—provided shrewd and diplomatic leadership in the hours and days immediately following Caesar’s assassination. Indeed, he maneuvered a compromise by which Caesar was not condemned as a tyrant, and his assassins received amnesty. He was later called a tyrant by Cicero.
NOT a true statement about the Second Triumvirate:
The feud within the Second Triumvirate came to an end in 31 B.C. when Octavian defeated the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, at this naval battle. It was Octavian’s victory here that gave him control over wealthy Egypt, and allowed him to regain financial footing for the Empire, and to begin establishing varies public treasures and funds.
What are some things that account for the fall of the Republic?