The “stream of commerce” doctrine was first articulated by Justice _____ in Swift and Company v. United States (1905).
The _____ authorizes the attorney general to suspend voting tests and assign federal voting registrars and poll watchers to any state or political subdivision in which less than 50 percent of the voting age population was registered
The _____ established the Interstate Commerce Commission, which granted this independent agency with limited authority to regulate railroads engaged in commerce among the states.
Article _____ of the Constitution recognizes the judiciary as a separate branch of government.
The theory of _____ powers originated with Alexander Hamilton, an advocate of strong centralized government.
The Supreme Court first recognized the power of Congress to conduct investigations in
argues that the Constitution should be understood in terms of the intentions of those who wrote it or the meaning generally ascribed to the document at the time of its ratification.
The power of the Supreme Court to invalidate unconstitutional acts of Congress was first implied in
The Constitution prohibits _____ laws that retroactively criminalize conduct after the action has occurred.
In United States v. Richardson, Chief Justice _____ argued that although Richardson, as a federal taxpayer, had “a genuine interest in the use of funds,” he had not alleged that he was “in danger of suffering any particular concrete injury.”
Justice _____ articulated the Ashwander rules, which seek to protect judicial power not only by deflecting constitutional questions but by making narrow rulings when constitutional issues are considered.
“Congress shall have Power . . . to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States” is known as Congress’s ______ power.
The doctrine of implied powers was established by the Supreme Court in the landmark case of
Supreme Court justices inclined toward _____ are more likely to take an expansive view of the Court’s jurisdiction and powers than are judges who embrace judicial restraint.
In _____ (1978), the Court permitted residents of a community near the site of a proposed nuclear power plant to challenge the constitutionality of the federal Price-Anderson Act, which facilitates construction of nuclear plants by limiting liability for accidents.
In Pollock v. Farmer’s Loan and Trust Company (1895), the Court invalidated a federal law that
The first three articles of the Constitution are known as the _____ articles.
In _____, the Court granted standing to a taxpayer to challenge federal spending that would benefit parochial schools in possible violation of the Establishment of Religion Clause of the First Amendment.
Broad environmental legislation passed by Congress under the power to regulate interstate commerce has been _____ received in the Supreme Court.
Article _____ authorizes Congress to define the jurisdiction of the lower federal courts and to regulate the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court’s preterm conference is devoted primarily to
In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court recognized a broad sphere of Congressional action under the _____ and, at the same time, placed restrictions on state grants of commercial monopoly.
The Constitution prohibits _____ laws that declare through legislation that a person or group is guilty of a crime without benefit of a judiciary trial.
Which of the following constitutional decisions was subsequently overruled by the Supreme Court?
The doctrine of _____ has historically imposed some limits on intergovernmental taxation.
The authority of a court of law to hear and decide certain types of cases is known as its
Although recognized by Article III of the Constitution, the Supreme Court was not formally established until passage of the _____ of 1789.
In upholding the Social Security Act of 1935, the Supreme Court accorded broad scope to Congress’s
The Supreme Court first invalidated a state law in
In the wake of the Civil War, Congress effectively prevented the Supreme Court from ruling on the constitutionality of
The Supreme Court grants approximately _____ petitions for certiorari out of the 10,000 that are filed each term.
The _____ prohibits the use of “cruel and unusual punishment.”
To be removed from office on impeachment, a federal judge must be convicted by a _____ vote of the U.S. Senate.
Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment granted Congress authority to legislate in the field of
When all of the judges on an appellate court participate in the oral argument of a case it is said that they are sitting
James Madison is the defendant in Marbury v. Madison because of his position as _____.
In the Judiciary Act of 1801, quickly passed in the ending days of the John Adams Administration, Congress decreased the number of Supreme Court justices to
The party who initiates a civil suit is referred to as the _____.
The Supreme Court’s practice of issuing an “opinion of the Court” was initiated by Chief Justice _____.
Congress has also created a number of _____ courts, so called because the authority to create these courts is presumed to flow from the legislative article, rather than from the judicial article.
John Locke is said to have had a major influence on the founders in his views on the relationship between individual rights and the state. Specifically, Jefferson, it is said, relied on Lockean philosophy in crafting the Declaration of Independence. What did Locke describe as the natural rights of men? What were his thoughts on popular sovereignty? How did Locke conceive the social contract?
What is the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review? From where does it derive? Did the founders approve of this practice? Why does the Court’s use of judicial review remain controversial to this day?