_______________ is the only technique that provides “proof positive” that the clinician has truly entered the trauma survivor’s world of perception.
The technique of ____________ supports the client’s feelings and questioning, and provides and open door for a client to discuss and evaluate their theological beliefs.
The use of ______________ stimuli to assess psychophysiological reactivity allows maximal control over the selection and presentation of the stimuli.
In order to fully and accurately understand symptom endorsement and scale scores, it is essential to examine the appropriate ___________ that may contribute to specific posttraumatic reactions.
Children’s ethnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds have been relatively ____________ in relation to traumatic reactions.
Researchers continue to debate the nature of _____________ traumatic response and the applicability of DSM criteria A—D.
During the past decade, empirical studies increasingly focused on examining _________________ correlates of clinical symptoms from a broader range of psychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder.
_______________ children directly may be most effective after the physical needs are met and a sense of safety is restored and when the interviewer is appropriately knowledgeable and deemed caring and trustworthy by the children.
Which form of trauma treatment uses acupuncture points and claims that all disease, physical and emotional, comes from blockage in the energy system?
Instead of hippocampal atrophy, the children and adolescents with PTSD were found to have ______________ intracranial and cerebral volumes than normal controls.
Reduced __________________ volume has been reported in 7 of the 11 structural neuroimaging studies of adults with PTSD and in none of the 4 structural neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents.
One of the most frequently used techniques in CBT is:
Viktor Frankl originated _________________ from his experiences as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Studies in animals suggest that _______________ plays a critical role in the acquisition and elaboration of fear conditioning.
Two studies have been conducted that compare resting regional ___________ in individuals with PTSD and normal controls.
________________ activity is perhaps the most widely studied response system.
Exaggerated ________________ responding has been recognized as a core subjective symptom of posttrauma reactions since the earliest descriptions of combat soldiers suffering adverse effects of exposure to the stress of combat.
_______________ can be defined as an acquired, persistent impairment of intellectual functioning with a compromise in at least three of the following spheres f mental activity: language, memory and visuospatial skills, emotion or personality, and higher cognitive abilities.
_________________ assessment of children includes collecting information from multiple sources and in multiple contexts.
In the past two decades, a number of instruments and subscales have been developed and revised to reflect a growing knowledge of ______________ posttraumatic reactions.
Prior to 1980, the assessment of childhood traumatic response was accomplished primarily through ________________.
________________ therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel.
Learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorder (ADD) are ___________________ conditions found in adults and children.
In assessing symptoms endorsed by children, it is important to be cognizant of ______________ issues.
Even though our understanding of the neuropsychological factors in trauma contexts is evolving, _______________ formulations can now be developed using existing knowledge about the individual trauma and neuropsychological conditions.
Theoretically, the critical element in physiological response to trauma-related cues is activation of the __________________ in which a traumatic event is encoded.
_________________ has more scientific research as a trauma treatment than any other method, except for medications.
Exposure therapy is a form of _________________ where the client is systematically exposed to a feared memory, object, or anxiety-producing situation.
_____________________ produces stress and strain in the relationship; _______________ help the client relax in the counselor’s presence.
An important feature of the __________________ method is its flexibility
It is important to recognize that the PTSD diagnosis is presently based on _________________ information that is not necessarily comparable to information recorded directly from physiological systems.
Although commonly co-occur [together], the comorbid effects of PTSD and ________________ are generally underevaluated by traumatologists and neuropsychologists.
Perhaps the most salient confound in the examination of the relationship between PTSD and neuropsychological deficits among combat veterans is the issue of ______________ .
When specific studies of brain-based factors cannot be used as a guide to assessment or treatment planning, consulting _________________ can often be helpful.
The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder is estimated to be between 8% and 9%, with rates of PTSD approximately twice as high in ____________________.
Research using psychophysiological measures has examined the possibility that PTSD is characterized by persistently elevated levels of _________________.
Chronic ________________________ can also produce damage to multiple brain regions involved in the regulation of behavior, cognition, and emotion.
Which choice below would be considered a “non-verbal” form of trauma therapy?
Recording muscle activity through small surface electrodes placed over the muscles of interest is called:
According to the reading, understanding childhood traumatic reactions has been limited or confused by five things. Which item below is NOT one of the five?