Which of the following is nota disadvantage of a within subjects design?
The degree of spread among data when surrounding the mean is known as __________.
Barlett et al. (2005) selected a between subjects design to study the influence of action figures on male body image. Which of the following reasons listed below is nota reason why Bartlett and colleagues would have selected the design?
Recall the research conducted by Bartlett et al. (2005) on the influence of action figures on male body image. If Barlett exposed participants to the three conditions in the same manner and found that scores on the third condition always decreased, he might be concerned about _________.
Roberts with the Mayo Clinic conducted a study on individuals between the ages of 70–89 and found differences in men and women. In this example, gender of participant was the __________.
While conducting her within subjects design, Geraldine notices that participants are failing to fully complete the last level of the independent variable. Specifically, subjects are leaving questions blank and do not appear to be placing as much effort into the study as they were in the first level of the independent variable. Geraldine is seeing what disadvantage to using a within subjects design?
The degree of spread among data surrounding the mean is known as _____________.
To combat order effects that may occur with a within subjects design, many researchers will use _____________.
Janiszewski and Uy (2008) conducted an experiment in which they had 43 participants read 10 scenarios. In this study, the researchers wanted to determine the impact of the scenario type on the anchoring and adjusting of participants. Anchoring and adjustment occurs when people use a starting point (anchor) as a basis to make judgments about a given scenario (adjustment). How many levels are there for the independent variable in this study?
Participants experiencing the same order of presentation of the levels of the independent variable can lead to __________.
A within subject design will use _____________ participants than/as a between subjects design.
Carefully review the research matrix presented below. If this is a within subjects design, how many total participants will be used in the experiment?
A _____________ design exposes participants to all levels or conditions of the independent variable.
Betsy is conducting a study on school psychologists. She is thinking of having school psychologists complete four experimental conditions each lasting one hour. A colleague suggests to Betsy that she modify the design so that different groups of school psychologists are used and Betsy will not have to worry about __________.
We discussed a study known as the Stroop effect. Stroop developed 3 types of stimuli for his study. Each type of stimuli presented a different task that participants had to complete. Stroop then measured the amount of time it took the participants to complete each task. What is the independent variable in this study?
_________ occurs when the effects of a prior condition influence subsequent treatment conditions.
In a within subjects design, all participants are exposed to all levels of the independent variable. A major concern to the participants going through all levels of the independent variable is becoming tired of participating in the study. What disadvantage is being described here?
During the late 1980s and the early 1990s the Pepsi Challenge was in full swing. During the challenge, participants were asked to taste cola from both Coke and Pepsi. Once they had tasted both drinks, the participants were asked to report which was better tasting. The results indicated that participants found Pepsi products to be better tasting. What is the dependent variable in this study?
In chapter 8, we mentioned a study that examined the relationship between where one lives (urban or rural) and when a specific form of cancer is diagnosed. For this example, the independent variable was where one lives. How many levels did the IV have?
You want to replicate Barlett et al.’s research on amount of blood in a video game and measures of aggression. Your independent variable has 4 levels: maximum blood, medium blood, low blood, and no blood. You want to conduct a between subjects design. How many total participants will you need if you want 10 participants in each level of the IV?
_________ occur when participants improve performance due to subsequent experiences on the same task.
Katie is conducting a within subjects design. Her independent variable has 2 levels that must occur 1 week apart. In the first session during the first week, Katie has 120 participants. However, a week later when the second session occurs, Katie only has 85 participants show up for the study. What disadvantage to within subject designs is Katie encountering?
William the researcher conducted a study on monitor size and reaction time. The research matrix is given below. If you wanted to give every participant in the study a piece of paper with the contact information of the researchers, how many pieces of paper will you need for this between subjects design?
Tamir et al. (2008) conducted a study to see what impact music has on participants playing computer games. The researchers had participants play computer games while listening to angry, exciting, and neutral music. The researchers then measured the participant’s performance while listening to each type of music. This is an example of what type of design?
In chapter 7, we used a between subjects design to see if caffeine influenced levels of alertness. We had three groups of participants: participants who received 8 ounces of a caffeinated beverage, participants who received 24 ounces of a caffeinated beverage, and participants who received no caffeine. If this was a between subjects design with 30 total participants, how many participants would be in each condition?
Carefully review the research matrix presented below. If this is a within subjects design, how many total participants will be used in the experiment?
During the late 1980s and the early 1990s the Pepsi Challenge was in full swing. During the challenge, participants were asked to taste cola from both Coke and Pepsi. Once they had tasted both drinks, the participants were asked to report which was better tasting. The results indicated that participants found Pepsi products to be better tasting. What is the independent variable in this study?
Herrman recommends that his students take the practice GRE before registering to take the real GRE. Dr. Herrman makes this recommendation because he knows that __________ can increase performance on subsequent experiences with the same tasks.
In a __________, participants will be exposed to only one level of the independent variable.
Tamir et al. (2008) conducted a study to see what impact music has on participants playing computer games. The researchers had participants play computer games while listening to angry, exciting, and neutral music. The researchers then measured the participant’s performance while listening to each type of music. What is the independent variable in this study?
Other sets (combined)
Which of the following is a potential source of experimenter bias?
Investigators sometimes use deception in their case procedures to address the problem of _____.
Which of the following statements is true of the use of staged manipulations?
Phillipe, a researcher, examined the eﬀect of lighting on learning. Randomly assigned participants learned material while using a 100‑watt or a 125‑watt bulb. He found no diﬀerences between the two groups. The nonsignificant results may have occurred because of _____.
Presenting participants with diﬀerent versions of a videotaped confession in order to study a person’s perception is an example of a(n) _____ manipulation.
Which of the following is a drawback of the matched pairs design?
Louise, a psychologist, is interested in the eﬀect of physical attractiveness on ratings of punishment assigned to a driver in an automobile accident. Participants read an account of the accident and received a written description of a physically attractive or unattractive defendant. The manipulation of attractiveness would be an example of a _____ manipulation
When testing the eﬀect of noise on the performance of a task, Marco tests half the participants in a cool, quiet room and the other half in a hot, noisy room. In this case, what confounding variable has Marco failed to eliminate?
Which of the following measures of the dependent variable is generally inexpensive?
Professor Smith takes a survey on her students in order to know if they prefer an individual or a group research project. The responses she collects would be an example of which of the following types of measure?
Which of the following does NOT increase the likelihood of internal validity?
When individuals participate in only one condition, it is a(n) _____ design. When individuals participate in all conditions, it is a _____ design.
Toby wants to see whether packaging information aﬀects the way people rate breakfast cereal. The same cereal is put in three kinds of packages: a brown box that says “To start your day oﬀ with a smile”; a yellow box that says “For extra energy all day”; and a white box that says “Fortified with B complex and iron.” In this study, the:
Aisha wants to examine the eﬀect of room temperature on task performance. She places one group of participants in a room that is set to a temperature of 54 degrees, a second group in a room that is set to a temperature of 72 degrees, and a third group in a room that is set to a temperature of 90 degrees. She then measures the amount of time it takes each group to complete the same task. This design would best represent a(n) _____ design.
Without informing them, a researcher assigns participants to either an experimental or a placebo group. The researcher’s assistants who test the participants do not know who belongs to which group. The experiment has used a _____.
Any feature of an experiment that might inform participants of the purpose of the study is called a(n) _____.
A researcher who measures the speed of helping in response to a request is using a _____ measure.
Rachel compares the math skills of boys and girls in the sixth grade. She administers a series of math problems to both groups and asks them to solve as many problems as they can within a 15‑minute time period. She finds that both groups were able to answer only 2% of the problems. The result obtained can be due to the _____ eﬀ
A(n) _____ allows the experimenters who are collecting the data to become comfortable with their roles and to standardize their procedures.
Hector measures participants based on a variable of interest and rank orders them according to their scores. He then places them in pairs in which each member has approximately the same score as the other member in the pair. The members of each pair are then randomly assigned to the conditions in the experiment. Hector’s method of participant assignment is an example of a(n) _____ design.
Matt, a researcher, has a confederate drop a stack of papers in front of one person or a group of people. She then measures the amount of time it takes for the confederate to receive help in picking up the papers. The manipulation employed in this experiment would be an example of a _____ manipulation.
When a confounding variable is present in an experiment, _____.
The issue of _____ is particularly important when measuring human performance
Participants were asked to consume 8, 16, 24, or 32 ounces of alcohol and then to recite the English alphabet as quickly as possible. The rate or the amount of time it takes the participant to correctly recite the alphabet would be an example of a _____ measure.
If one cannot use all possible orders in a repeated measures design, a good alternative is to use _____.
A matched pairs design is most likely to be used when:
In order to study the human behavioral patterns during crisis situations, Clara first conducts a trial run with a small number of participants. She does so to make sure that the instructions are clear to the participants and the whole experimental setting is plausible. This trial run procedure is an example of a _____.
Adam measures the length of time two people spend gazing into each other’s eyes as an indication of interpersonal attraction. Which type of measure is Adam using?
Which of the following is an assumption in the context of staged manipulations?
When a confounding variable is present in an experiment, one cannot tell whether the results were due to the _____.
Kalim wants to study the eﬀectiveness of a new teaching method. He includes two teachers of a class in the experiment. One teacher uses the new method of teaching, and the other teacher uses the old method. At the end of the semester, he finds that students who were taught in the new way had higher grades than students taught in the old way. What is the confounding variable?
Colin wants to find out how using fins increases swimming speed. If an independent groups design is used, the researcher would manipulate the variable by:
How can expectancy eﬀects be reduced? – By using a double‑blind experiment
In the context of the repeated measures design, when the sequence of presenting the treatments determines the participants’ responses in part, the researcher is dealing with _____.
What is a disadvantage of using the strongest manipulation possible in a research?
Which of the following is a technique to improve internal validity?
Reah, a developmental psychologist measures aggressive behavior in a group of second graders before and after viewing an aggressive cartoon. This design would best represent a(n) _____ design.
Which of the following statements is true of straightforward manipulations?
In the context of physiological measures, the electromyogram is used to measure _____.
In an experimental design, if awareness of a pretest poses a problem, which of the following would a researcher least likely do?
Which of the following physiological measures would you recommend a researcher use to compare brain images between individuals with and without Alzheimer’s disease?
Failure of the experimenter to control some extraneous variable may result in a(n)
What is the purpose of a pilot study?
A research psychologist has participants serve as their own control group by having them take part in every condition of his study. This experimental approach is an example of a(n)
Why would an investigator use more than one dependent measure?
A criminal investigator measures a suspect’s change in perspiration in response to questions regarding a burglary. The investigator is using which type of physiological measure?
A manipulation in which participants are run individually versus as a group is an important consideration regarding the _____ of the manipulation.
Which of the following is NOT a step in the posttest‐only design?
In general, staged manipulations are _____ than straightforward manipulations.
Under which of the following circumstances is a matched pairs design likely to be used? It is likely to be used when
Participants in a concept learning study solve several anagram puzzles over the course of 30 minutes. Even though the puzzles were known to be of equal difficulty, participants solved the puzzles in less and less time as the 30 minute period progressed. This is likely the result of a(n) _____ effect.
Participants consume 8, 16, 24, or 32 ounces of alcohol and are then asked to recite the alphabet as quickly as possible. The amount of time it takes the participant to correctly recite the alphabet would be an example of a _____ measure.
Which of the following does not increase the likelihood of internal validity?
In general, _____ manipulations are less costly than _____ manipulations.
Lauren usually receives excellent ratings of her performance on the basketball court. However, her coach rates her performance in today’s game much lower than normal because her teammates had an exceptionally good game. What effect may be responsible for today’s lower rating?
In drug research, a(n) _____ has occurred when it is unclear whether improvement is due to properties of the drug or the expectation about the effect of the drug. – placebo effect
Mortality refers to the fact that participants sometimes
While in a shopping mall, a marketing researcher stops and asks you which you prefer: soda in a bottle or soda in a can. Your response would be an example of a _____ measure.
An investigator interested in the effectiveness of various memory strategies instructs randomly assigned participants to use either imagery or repetitive silent speech to remember a list of 20 words. Two weeks later she measures participants for how many words they recall. The imagery group recalls an average of 2.6 words while the repetition group recalls an average of 1.9 words. She concludes there is no difference in the effectiveness of these memory strategies because the results are not statistically significant. Is this a reasonable conclusion?
A researcher wants to find out how much fins increase swimming speed. If an independent groups design is used, the researcher would manipulate the variable by
One problem with the pretest posttest design is that
Strong manipulations are used to ________ the effect of the ________ variable.
A confounding variable is devastating to an experimental design because it
Experimenter expectancy or bias effects can be reduced by
A design that has two conditions with different participants in each condition is a(n) ______ design.
A matched pairs design is used when – it is too expensive to use simple random
In a Solomon four‐group design, if there is no effect of the pretest,
When constructing a Latin square design, each condition – appears at each ordinal
Which of the following is likely to be the most important consideration for a repeated measures design using alcohol or drugs?
Which of the following statements is incorrect? In an experimental design, mortality refers to the
At the end of a three‐year study, Susan finds that 12 percent of her participants did not take part in the final survey because they moved away. In research terms, Susan is experiencing a _____ problem.
Columbo measures the tension in a participant’s neck muscles as she completes a strenuous physical task. Dr. Columbo has most likely used a(n)
A researcher conducts his study with a small number of participants in order to reveal whether the instructions and procedures are clearly understood. This procedure is an example of a
The galvanic skin response (GSR) is used as a measure of
Experiments conducted in field settings generally minimize which one of the following?
A researcher has a confederate drop a stack of papers in front of one person or a group of people. She then measures the amount of time it takes for the confederate to receive help in picking up the papers. The manipulation employed in this experiment would be an example of a _________ manipulation.