HIUS 445 Exam 6

HIUS 445 Exam 6 Liberty University

  1. What was one of Reagan’s greatest frustrations as President?
  2. The Contras were Nicaraguan “freedom fighters” opposed to the pro-Soviet Sandinista government.  Reagan wanted to support the Contras.
  3. What was NSDD-138?
  4. This Latin American county was of special interest to Reagan.  By the time he entered office in 1981, the country had been taken over by the pro-Soviet Sandinistas.
  5. The Independent Council into Iran-Contra released his report in 1993 and concluded that there was “no credible evidence” that Reagan broke the law but that his lax leadership approach created conditions that encouraged others to break the law.
  6. This former Senator from Tennessee was Reagan’s Chief of Staff from 1987 to 1989.  He brought professionalism and administrative efficiency to the Reagan White House.
  7. This Reagan NSC aide secretly diverted revenue from sale of arms to Iran to funding the “freedom fighters” of Nicaragua.
  8. This 1982 Congressional amendment– sponsored by MA Democrat and signed by President Reagan– prohibited the CIA and the Department of Defense from using any funds to overthrow the government of Nicaragua.
  9. Aides worked to keep Reagan away from the families of hostages because they felt he could become too emotionally attached.
  10. Despite the scandal of Iran-Contra, the Reagan administration did nothing illegal, and in the end its efforts secured the release of the seven American hostages in the Middle East.
  11. Why did Iran want arms in the 1980s, setting the stage for the Iran-Contra scandal?
  12. Reagan was staunchly opposed to working with Iranian moderates to secure the release of American hostages in Lebanon.   When the initiative was raised by his National Security Advisor, he immediately dismissed it and wanted nothing to do with even talking to the Iranians.
  13. Both Secretary of State Schultz and Secretary of Defense Weinberger were key players in (and advocates of) the selling of U.S. arms to Iran.
  14. Reagan desired sending U.S. troops to fight in Latin America in the early 1980s, but was thwarted from doing so by Democrats in Congress.
  15. In the summer of 1985, what later became known as the Iran-Contra scandal began when Reagan approved allowing Israel to sell arms to moderate, anti-Khomeini leaders in Iran.  To demonstrate their sincerity, the moderates would use their influence in the region to secure the release of American hostages in Beirut.
  16. According to his autobiography, what was Reagan’s rationale for why he was unaware of his NSC’s illegal support of Nicaraguan rebels?
  17. In this country in the 1980s, Hezbollah, a terrorist group supported by Iran, took seven American hostages.  It was Reagan’s quest to secure the release of these hostages that opened the door to the Iran-Contra scandal.
  18. The Tower Commission heard testimony from Reagan on Iran-Contra but ultimately deemed it worthless because he later appeared before the board and recanted his previous testimony (acknowledging his approval of the sale of arms to Iran).  It was clear that his aides were influencing his memory.
  19. It was actually President Reagan who began the War on Terror.  In 1984, he implemented a national security directive (NSDD 138) supported by George Shultz that authorized the creation of secret FBI and CIA paramilitary squads and use of existing Pentagon military units.
  20. It was this National Security Advisor (1984-1985) who instigated the arms for hostages deal with Iran.  He later felt guilt over his role and attempted suicide.
  21. NOT associated with the Weinberger Doctrine?
  22. This commission named to investigate Iran-Contra published its report in early 1987.  The picture that emerged of Reagan was unflattering– he was ill-informed, inattentive, naïve, and easily manipulated.
  23. What was Operation Staunch?
  24. The most vocal opponent of NSDD-138?
  25. This secretive National Security Advisor (1985-1986) led the effort to sells arms to Iran for hostages after his predecessor—realizing working with Iranian moderates was not working–  advised against further action.  Some administration officials believed he was deceiving Reagan (and that Reagan wanted to be deceived on this issue).
  26. What was the Weinberger Doctrine?
  27. Why did the United States bomb Libya in April 1986?
  28. One of the things to contribute to the Iran-Contra was Reagan’s detached leadership style.  He did not like to confront dissent, and found it difficult to openly disagree with (or take sides against) his advisors.   The result was a free-for-all in which his foreign policy advisors, including the NSC, sought to get to Reagan and sell him on their latest ideas.  Getting Reagan’s approval, and then quickly acting on it before opponents could stop it, was commonplace in the Reagan White House.
  29. In early 1987 this terse White House Chief of Staff was let go, becoming the “fall guy” for the poor Reagan White House leadership style.
  30. Pro-American Nicaraguan rebels in opposition to Ortega.
  31. How did Reagan survive the Iran-Contra scandal?
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