Which type of factor probably plays a bigger role in determining whether a person will trya drug in the first place, as opposed to determining which of those who try it will become dependent?
One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that “the effect of any psychoactive drug is powerfully influenced by ___________________.”
One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that:
Suppose a person is prescribed an opioid medication (similar to heroin) to treat a painful injury. But after her injury heals, she takes the drug primarily to feel euphoria. Based on this information alone, what term would you use to describe her drug use?
One finding is that adolescents who smoke cigarettes, drink heavily, and smoke marijuana are ______________
When examining a graph regarding changes over the years in the percentage of high school seniors who say they have “used” marijuana, we find almost a clear inverse (mirror-image) relationship to
One of the general principles of psychoactive drugs is that “every drug has ___________
Despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, they can be especially informative
One personality variable that has been consistently associated with higher rates of substance dependence is
The use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring is called:
The occurrence of a “withdrawal syndrome” is evidence of
When using a substance makes normal activities, such as driving or swimming, become so disoriented and impaired, and increases danger to the individual and others, is called
As views of substance dependence have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be
Which of the following drugs has been clearly linked to violent crime?
Since the 1990s, HIV transmission rates among intravenous drug users in New York have been reduced from about 50% to about 10%. According to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?
Acute drug effects are those that
An older (2009) DAWN mortality report found almost 10 times as many _________-related deaths as _________-related deaths.
According to recent DAWN Toxicity Data, which of these substances is near the top of the “emergency room visits” lists?
When repeated exposure to the same dose of a drug results in a lesser effect, this is called
In determining whether using a drug causespeople to become criminals, it is important to remember that
Important changes to the regulation of drugs by the Food and Drug Administration occurred in 1938 and 1962, largely in response to
In the early 1900s in the U.S., drug reformers raised fears about the presence of opium and cocaine in many patent medicines and tonics being linked to:
In a challenge to the international ban on drug trafficking, _____________ became the first nation to completely legalize the sale and use of marijuana.
Compared to urine samples, hair samples
According to the text, what drug issue is currently at the center of a conflict between state and federal laws?
Substances with high abuse potential and no currently accepted medical use are listed in/as
From the 1920s to the 1970s, about 1 out of 1,000 Americans was in prison at any point in time. Due largely to changes in drug laws and drug enforcement, by 2008, that rate has now
In the early 1800s, _____________ was the medical doctor’s most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of conditions, but mainly for pain relief.
An economic study of U.S. efforts to eradicate coca fields in South America indicated
Before a new drug is released to the market, the FDA requires
Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the
The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, blood pressure, etc.) within a certain range is called
Which neurotransmitter resides at neuromuscular junctions in the somatic system, and acts on receptors that “excite” the muscles?
Drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in two main ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, or by
Brain neurons have four morphologically defined regions. Which choice is NOT one of those regions?
Weight control, aggression, food intake, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with
Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called
Which brain-imaging technique provides real-time information about changes in brain blood flow?
Specialized structures that recognize and respond to specific chemical signals are called
Which chemical pathway appears to be important both in some types of psychotic reactions and in the reinforcing/reward properties of various drugs?
“Nonspecific effects” of taking a drug are those that do not depend on its chemical activity. They are sometimes referred to as
When the use of a drug interferes with normal behavior, such as driving a car, experienced users may learn to compensate and show less impairment than new users. This is an example of
Which of these is given its own classification category, due to its complex effects at different doses?
The text uses an example of overlapping dose-response curves for slowed reaction time, ataxia (staggering), and coma to illustrate
In some cases, repeated use of a drug leads to pharmacodynamic tolerance, which is based on
Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol can be classified as a(n)
The blood-brain barrier
Of the following routes of administration, which will produce the fastest onset of effects?
Researchers, when seeking to measure toxicity of drugs in mice, try to find the difference between the therapeutic index and the lethal doses amount. This difference is referred to as the