## PSYC 354 Exam 1

PSYC 354 Exam 1

1. A researcher was interested in the effects of gender on attitudes toward women in leadership positions. The researcher surveyed a group of individuals, 12 of whom were men and 12 of whom were women. In this example, what is the dependent variable?
2. Which of the following types of variables are considered scale variables by statistical computing packages such as SPSS?
3. A variable that consists of separate indivisible categories for which there are no values between categories is a:
4. Pictorial graphs are more commonly found in ________ than in ________.
5. Many college admission offices track applicants by state of residence. What kind of variable is state of residence?
6. In correlational studies, we manipulate:
7. The ________ allows researchers to make predictions from a person’s value on one variable to a person’s value on another variable.
8. The outcome variable that we expect to change with changes in the independent variable is the ________ variable.
9. Professor Kellogg calculates the grades on the first exam for her statistics class. She finds that students did really well, with most students scoring 98 or higher. What type of effect, which often corresponds to a negatively skewed distribution, is most likely to be influencing the shape of the distribution of scores?
10. This table shows tests scores for a cumulative final exam in a general education, social science course, such as introduction to psychology.
11. Scatterplots are often used to assess what type of pattern the data create. For example, when the data form a pattern that flows upward and toward the right, this is considered to be a(n):
12. In a within‐groups research design, each participant receives:
13. A medical researcher interested in asthma symptoms wanted to know how symptoms were affected in dry versus humid conditions. The researchers recruited 18 asthma patients to spend four weeks under two conditions: sleeping with a dehumidifier for two weeks to create a “dry” environment and sleeping with a humidifier for the remaining two weeks to create a “humid” environment. Patients were asked to rate their symptoms at regular intervals using a scale from “0 – no symptoms” to “20 – maximum asthma symptoms.” The change in asthma symptoms from dry to humid conditions was 5.82, showing an advantage for humid conditions. What was the descriptive statistic in this study?
14. If you were graphing one nominal independent variable and one scale dependent variable, you would use a:
15. Why do researchers typically study samples rather than populations?
16. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their happiness on a scale from 1 to 7, with 1 indicating very unhappy and 7 indicating very happy. What percentage of participants rated their happiness as 7?
17. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their level of depression on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no feelings of depression and 10 indicating very depressed.
18. The bars representing data touch each other in a:
19. Controlling for ________ variables permits researchers to make statements about cause‐ effect relationships between variables.
20. The difference between an interval and a ratio variable is that:
21. A variable that systematically varies with the independent variable can prevent us from knowing what is causing an outcome or effect. This variable is known as a(n):
22. A frequency polygon is similar to a histogram except that:
23. A teacher calculated her students’ test scores and found that overall they did very well. She found that out of the 23 students in the class, 19 of them got a 95 on her test. What percentage of students got a 95?
24. A correlation measures the relationship among ________ or more variables.
25. are distributions in which one tail of the distribution is pulled away from the center.
26. If you were graphing one scale independent variable and one scale dependent variable, you would use a:
27. A descriptive statistic is generally defined as:
28. The number of times a person eats fast food each week would be a(n) ________ variable.
29. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their level of depression on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no feelings of depression and 10 indicating very depressed. How many participants rated their depression levels?
30. If we have one scale variable, what type of graph should we use?
31. The measurement of the performance of runners in a race based on their finishing places would be a(n) ________ variable. The measurement of the performance of runners in a race based on their times to complete the race would be a(n. ________ variable.
32. A weight‐management researcher was interested in whether the size of breakfast could deter overall food consumption throughout the rest of the day. He creates two breakfast groups, a 350‐calorie breakfast and a 750‐calorie breakfast, assigns six participants to each group and tracks their total calories eaten in one day. Because of the detailed attention needed to accurately interview participants about their eating, he works with the high‐calorie group and has his assistant interview the low‐calorie group. Identify the confounding variable in this study.
33. to any unnecessary or distracting information in a chart.
34. A weight‐management researcher was interested in whether the size of breakfast could deter overall food consumption throughout the rest of the day. He creates two breakfast groups, a 350‐calorie breakfast and a 750‐calorie breakfast, assigns six participants to each group and tracks their total calories eaten in one day. Because of the detailed attention needed to accurately interview participants about their eating, he works with the high‐calorie group and has his assistant interview the low‐calorie group.
35. What is the dependent variable in this study?
36. In the ________ lie, participants in a study are preselected resulting in biased results.
37. Jonathon has taken the GRE three times. Every time he takes it he gets a 500 on the math section. This implies that:
38. A normal distribution is also known as a(n. ________ distribution. An operational definition is one that:
39. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their happiness on a scale from 1 to 7, with 1 indicating very unhappy and 7 indicating very happy. How many people participated in this study (i.e., how many people provided happiness ratings)?
40. What research technique is crucial to drawing the conclusion that the independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable?
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